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是什么让柔软的东西摸起来软乎乎的? – 译学馆
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是什么让柔软的东西摸起来软乎乎的?

What Makes Soft Things Soft?

Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this episode of SciShow.
感谢Skillshare对本期《科学秀》的支持
Click the link in the description to learn more about Skillshare.
点击简介里的链接 深入了解Skillshare
《科学秀》
是什么让柔软的东西摸起来软乎乎的?
If you’ve ever run your fingers over a comfy blanket
如果你曾用手指抚摸舒服的毯子
or buried your face in a fluffy cat after a bad day,
或在糟糕的一天结束后 把脸埋在毛茸茸的猫身上
you’re familiar with just how nice the sensation of softness can be.
那你一定很熟悉那种美好的柔软感
And people are willing to pay for it.
人们甚至愿意为此买单
You’ll see bed sheets proclaiming the sumptuous goodness of Egyptian cotton
你会看到由埃及棉制成的奢华床品
or cashmere scarves retailing for a small fortune.
或者售价不菲的羊绒围巾
But why do cashmere and these other soft fabrics feel so soft?!
但是为什么羊绒等织物摸起来如此柔软呢?
Well, the answer isn’t completely clear, but it seems to involve two main components:
答案并不那么显而易见 但似乎涉及两个主要部分:
the properties of the material you’re touching, and you, or rather, your brain.
你接触的材料的属性 以及你或是说你的大脑
Fabric hand, or handle, is the term the textile industry uses
“织物手感” 或称“手感” 是纺织业术语
to describe the way a fabric feels and moves when you touch it.
用来描述在织物上抚摸和移动时的触感
For years, scientists who study fabric hand have been trying to
多年来 研究织物手感的科学家们一直试图
relate the subjective words we use to describe textures, like “soft” or “crisp”,
将我们用于描述材质的主观词汇(如“柔软”或“挺括”)
to properties they can actually measure.
与实际能测量的属性联系起来
And it can get pretty complex.
这相当复杂
The feel of the fabric can be influenced not just by the material properties
织物的手感不仅受到材料属性的影响
but also by the way you touch it and whether or not you’re actively moving your fingers over the material.
还有你触摸该材料的方式 以及你是否在揉搓面料
And your definition of “soft” might not match mine, which makes things even more complicated.
而且每个人对“软”的定义可能不一样 这就更复杂了
Despite this, scientists have pinpointed material properties that could be related to softness.
尽管如此 科学家已经确定了可能与柔软度有关的材料属性
And these can be split into two main groups:
这些属性可以分为两大类:
how smooth the fabric is, which includes properties like friction and surface irregularities,
织物的光滑度(包括摩擦力和表面不平整度)
and how easy it is to compress, which includes properties like the flexibility of the fabric.
以及被按压的难易程度(比如织物的柔韧性等属性)
So a bean bag sofa is soft not only because of its fabric casing,
所以豆袋沙发会这么柔软不仅是因为它的织物套
but also because you can squish it really easily.
还因为它可以轻易被我们压扁
But soft doesn’t necessarily mean you have the smoothest, most compressible object in the world.
但世界上最光滑 最易挤压的物体不一定就是最柔软的
A 2006 study showed that even though alpaca fiber was 10 times as rigid as wool,
2006年的一项研究表明 尽管羊驼纤维的硬度是羊毛的10倍
we encounter less friction when touching alpaca, so it feels softer.
但我们接触羊驼时产生的摩擦力较小 所以感觉更柔软
So material properties are part of the story,
因此 材料属性是我们觉得某样东西柔软的原因
but clearly there’s more to it. And that “more” is in our brains.
但显然还有其他原因藏在我们的大脑
We don’t understand everything about how it works yet.
我们还不完全了解它是如何作用的
But two psychology studies that examined how people rated the softness of compliant objects
但是两项关于人们如何评价物体柔度的心理学
may provide clues as to why.
或许能提供一些线索
Compliance, which can be measured by compressing an object,
柔软度可以通过按压一个物体来测量
is a way of describing how objects deform when they are subject to forces.
这是描述物体受力时如何形变的参数
In 1995, scientists found that your perception of softness could be related to the way that
1995年 科学家发现 你对柔软度的感知
pressure is distributed on your fingers as you move them over an object.
可能与手指在物体上移动时 压力的分布方式有关
At least in the case of objects with deformable surfaces, not so much for rigid ones.
至少对有表面可形变的物体来说是这样 对刚性表面则不适用
The researchers performed a series of experiments that involved, among other things,
研究人员进行了一系列实验 其中包括
people using their finger to press down on rubber, and having rubber pressed down on their finger.
人们用手指按压橡胶 以及让橡胶按压他们的手指
The results suggested that tactile information is enough to tell us whether something’s soft.
结果表明 通过触觉信息可以感知某物是否柔软
This information is communicated by mechanoreceptors in our skin
这些信息是由我们皮肤上的机械刺激感受器传递的
that work by sensing differences in pressure on your skin
当手指触及物体时
when your finger touches an object.
机械刺激感受器会感知到皮肤上的压力差异
A study in 2008 extended these findings and found that
2008年的一项研究将以上发现进行扩展:
people tended to rate rubber objects as soft if they were more compliant
如果橡胶制品比手指更柔软或更易形变
or deformable than the human finger,
人们则更倾向于认为它们是柔软的
and hard if they were less compliant.
如果没有手指柔软 则认为它们不是很软
So whether you’re petting your dog or
所以 抚摸狗狗
just gliding your hand over a bunch of luxurious cashmere scarfs,
或仅仅用手滑过一条奢华的羊绒围巾
there’s actually a lot going on to bring you that lovely experience.
因为大脑接收到了很多反馈 你才会有愉悦的体验
So, cashmere scarves are a treat to touch.
所以 抚摸羊绒围巾是触觉上的享受
But cream mixing with coffee can be a treat for your eyes.
奶油与咖啡的融合则是一种视觉上的享受
Just picture it, a nice glass of cold brew with that perfect swirl of cream.
想象一下 一杯赏心悦目的冷萃咖啡搭配着垂涎欲滴的奶油漩涡
And if you wanted to capture that moment forever,
如果你想永远记住那一刻
Skillshare offers a course on how to photograph coffee swirls.
Skillshare提供了一门关于如何拍摄咖啡漩涡的课程
In the class “Cold Brew Coffee Swirl,” Tabitha Park takes you through the whole process,
在“冷萃咖啡漩涡”课上 塔比莎·帕克将带你体验整个过程
from choosing the right coffee and cream to editing your shots.
从选择合适的咖啡和奶油到编辑你的照片
And that’s just one of the over 25,000 classes on Skillshare,
这只是Skillshare25000个课程中的一个
which is an online learning community for creators.
Skillshare是为创作者提供在线学习的社区
Premium members get unlimited access to those classes,
高级会员可以无限制地访问这些课程
so you can browse them all and find what you need to jumpstart your creativity, or your career.
所以通过浏览 找到你需要的课程来激发创造力或发展事业
And right now, the first 500 SciShow subscribers to sign up using the link in the description
现在 前500名点击简介里的链接去注册的《科学秀》订阅者
will get a 2 month free trial.
可以免费试用两个月
So check it out and get learning!
所以来看看吧 马上学起来!

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为什么毛绒绒的小狗和柔软的羊绒围巾摸起来都是软乎乎的,点开视频一起来探索“柔软”的秘密吧!

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