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如何增肌

What makes muscles grow? - Jeffrey Siegel

肌肉
Muscles.
我们有600多块
We have over 600 of them.
它们占据体重的1/3-1/2
They make up between1/3 and 1/2 of our body weight,
并连同结缔组织一起 构成了我们
and along with connective tissue, they bind us together,
支撑我们 让我们动起来
hold us up, and help us move.
不管健身是不是你的兴趣
And whether or not body buildingis your hobby,
你都需要持续关注自己的肌肉
muscles need your constant attention
因为你每天对待它们的方式
because the way you treatthem on a daily basis
将决定它们的“兴衰”
determines whetherthey will wither or grow.
比如 你站在门前
Say you’re standing in front of a door,
准备打开它
ready to pull it open.
你的大脑和肌肉已经做好准备要帮你完成这一目标了
Your brain and muscles are perfectly poised to help you achieve this goal. First,
第一步 大脑发送一个指令给你的手臂运动神经元
your brain sends a signal to motor neurons inside your arm.
当指令传到 它们就启动了
When they receive this message,they fire,
让肌肉收缩放松
causing muscles to contract and relax,
带动手臂里的骨头 产生需要的动作
which pull on the bones in your arm and generate the needed movement.
挑战变得越大 大脑信号越强
The bigger the challenge becomes,the bigger the brain’s signal grows,
完成动作所需的运动神经元就越多
and the more motor units it rallies to help you achieve your task.
但是 如果门是结实的铁做的呢?
But what if the dooris made of solid iron?
这时候 单靠你手臂的肌肉没法产生足量的拉力开门
At this point, your arm muscles alone won’t be able to generate enough tension to pull it open,
所以 你的大脑调配其它肌肉来帮忙
so your brain appealsto other muscles for help.
你站稳 收腹 背部使劲
You plant your feet, tighten your belly,and tense your back,
产生足够的拉力来开门
generating enough force to yank it open.
你的神经系统恰好会利用你早已具备的实力
Your nervous system has just leveragedthe resources you already have,
即其它肌肉 来满足你的需求
other muscles, to meet the demand.
当这些发生时
While all this is happening,
你的肌肉纤维正进行着另一种细胞变化
your muscle fibers undergo another kind of cellular change.
当你让它们发力时 它们会发生微小的损伤
As you expose them to stress,they experience microscopic damage, which,
就这点来说 这种损伤是件好事
in this context, is a good thing.
因为破损 受伤的细胞释放活性分子细胞活素
In response, the injured cells releaseinflammatory molecules called cytokines
激活免疫系统以修复损伤
that activate the immune systemto repair the injury.
这时肌肉塑造魔法开始了
This is when the muscle-buildingmagic happens.
肌肉组织受伤越严重
The greater the damageto the muscle tissue,
身体就越需要自我修复
the more your bodywill need to repair itself.
这种受伤和修复的循环最终
The resulting cycle of damage and repair
使肌肉变得更壮更结实
eventually makes musclesbigger and stronger
它们逐渐使自己适应更强的压力
as they adapt to progressivelygreater demands.
既然我们的身体已经对大部分日常活动适应了
Since our bodies have already adaptedto most everyday activities,
那些活动一般不会产生太大的压力
those generally don’t produceenough stress
刺激新肌肉的生长
to stimulate new muscle growth. So,
为了新肌肉的生成 一个称作“过度增长”的过程
to build new muscle,a process called hypertrophy,
我们的细胞要承受比它们已适应的负荷更重的工作压力
our cells need to be exposed to higher workloads than they are used to.
实际上 如果你不持续给肌肉更多的阻力
In fact, if you don’t continuously expose your muscles to some resistance,
它们就会收缩 即一个称作“肌肉萎缩”的过程
they will shrink, a process known as muscular atrophy.
相反地 将肌肉暴露在高强度压力下
In contrast, exposing the muscleto a high-degree of tension,
特别是当肌肉拉伸
especially whilethe muscle is lengthening,
也即“离心收缩”时
also called an eccentric contraction,
会为新肌肉的生长提供有效的条件
generates effective conditionsfor new growth. However,
肌肉不仅仅依靠运动才能生长
muscles rely on more thanjust activity to grow.
没有适量的营养 激素和休息
Without proper nutrition,hormones, and rest,
你的身体永远不能修复受损肌肉纤维
your body would never be ableto repair damaged muscle fibers.
饮食中的蛋白质维持肌肉
Protein in our diet preserves muscle mass
因为它以氨基酸的形式
by providing the buildingblocks for new tissue
提供原料给新的组织
in the form of amino acids.
足量蛋白质的摄入 加之自然生成的激素
Adequate protein intake,along with naturally occurring hormones,
比如胰岛素样生长因子和睾丸素
like insulin-like growth factorand testosterone,
帮助你体内的组织修复和生长
help shift the body into a state where tissue is repaired and grown.
这个重要的修复过程主要发生在我们休息的时候
This vital repair process mainly occurswhen we’re resting,
特别是晚上睡觉的时候
especially at night while sleeping.
性别和年龄影响修复机制
Gender and ageaffect this repair mechanism,
这就是为什么拥有更多睾丸素的年轻人
which is why young menwith more testosterone
在肌肉锻炼的游戏中 享有优势
have a leg up in the muscle building game.
基因因素也会影响肌肉的生长
Genetic factors also play a role in one’s ability to grow muscle.
一些人对于肌肉损伤拥有更强的免疫反应
Some people have more robustimmune reactions to muscle damage,
能更好地修复和替换受损肌肉纤维
and are better able to repairand replace damaged muscle fibers,
增加自身的肌肉建造能力
increasing theirmuscle-building potential.
身体会适应你对它的需求
The body responds to the demandsyou place on it.
如果你拉抻肌肉之后 能吃好休息好 并循环往复
If you tear your muscles up,eat right, rest and repeat,
你将收获
you’ll create the conditions to make your muscles
健壮结实的肌肉
as big and strong as possible.
肌肉的规律同样适于生活:
It is with muscles as it is with life:
有意义的成长需要挑战和压力
Meaningful growth requires challengeand stress.

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视频概述

健美不仅仅只靠运动 肌肉生长涉及到多个方面

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

lala

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tM1LFFxeKg

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