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是什么使诗成为了诗 – 译学馆
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是什么使诗成为了诗

What makes a poem … a poem? - Melissa Kovacs

启点字幕组
Light up your world.
穆罕默德·阿里花多年时间进行训练 成为了前无古人的
Muhammad Ali spent years training to become the greatest boxer
最伟大的拳击手
the world had ever seen,
但他只花了片刻时间便创造了最短的一首诗
but only moments to create the shortest poem.
1975年 阿里关于团结和友谊的演说
Ali captivated Harvard’s graduating class in 1975
使当时的哈佛大学毕业班为其深深着迷
with his message of unity and friendship.
当他结束演讲的时候 观众们仍觉意犹未尽
When he finished, the audience wanted more.
他们想要阿里作一首诗
They wanted a poem.
阿里便发表了后来被认为是有史以来最短的一首诗
Ali delivered what is considered the shortest poem ever.
“我 我们”
“Me, we.”
亦或者是 “我 我们!”
Or is it “me, weeee”?
没人能真正确定
No one’s really sure.
无论如何 如果这两个单词都能组成一首诗的话 那究竟是什么让诗成为了诗呢
Regardless, if these two words are a poem, then what exactly makes a poem a poem?
诗人们也一直在纠结着这个问题
Poets themselves have struggled with this question,
他们常常用各种比喻来给出一个近似的定义
often using metaphors to approximate a definition.
一首诗就像是一台小机器
Is a poem a little machine?
一团烟火
A firework?
一种回响
An echo?
或是一个梦
A dream?
诗歌通常会有某些可被辨识的特征
Poetry generally has certain recognizable characteristics.
第一 诗强调语言的韵律
One – poems emphasize language’s musical qualities.
韵律可通过押韵 节奏和格律来实现
This can be achieved through rhyme, rhythm, and meter,
从莎士比亚的十四行诗
from the sonnets of Shakepeare,
到孔子的格言
to the odes of Confucius,
再到梵文的吠陀经 都是如此
to the Sanskrit Vedas.
第二 诗歌采用的是浓缩性语言
Two – poems use condensed language,
它就像是被拧干了水份的文学
like literature with all the water wrung out of it.
第三 诗突出的是激情
Three – poems often feature intense feelings,
比如鲁米的圣诗
from Rumi’s spiritual poetry
或是巴勃罗·聂鲁达的洋葱颂
to Pablo Neruda’s “Ode to an Onion.”
诗歌 就像艺术本身一样 有着一种挑战简单的定义的习惯
Poetry, like art itself, has a way of challenging simple definitions.
尽管最早的诗歌的节奏型
While the rhythmic patterns of the earliest poems
其实是一种在写作出现前用来记下发生过的事的方式
were a way to remember stories even before the advent of writing,
一首诗并不一定是抒情的
a poem doesn’t need to be lyrical.
雷恩哈德•多尔的《阿普费尔》
Reinhard Döhl’s “Apfel”
以及尤金•贡姆林格的《寂静》
and Eugen Gomringer’s “silencio”
就刚好处在视觉艺术与诗歌之间的界限上
toe the line between visual art and poetry.
与此同时 E·E·卡明斯则写过一些诗 这些诗呈现出来的形状
Meanwhile, E.E. Cummings wrote poems whose shapes were as important
跟组成它的词语本身一样重要
as the words themselves,
比如说放大了一片叶子在空白页面上往下掉落的那种悲伤的孤独感
in this case amplifying the sad loneliness of a single leaf falling through space.
如果诗歌的视觉特征被淡化并融入到背景中去
If the visual nature of poetry faded into the background,
也许我们就只剩下音乐了
perhaps we’d be left with music,
这刚好是个大家热爱争论的领域
and that’s an area that people love to debate.
歌曲是诗吗
Are songs poems?
从文学意义上来说 很多人并不觉得作曲人是诗人
Many don’t regard songwriters as poets in a literary sense,
但艺术家们 比如保罗·西蒙
but lyrics from artists like Paul Simon,
鲍勃·迪伦和图派克·诗克
Bob Dylan,
写出的歌词
and Tupac Shakur
在没有音乐的时候仍经得住推敲
often hold up even without the music.
在说唱音乐中 诗的元素 比如押韵 节奏和意象
In rap, poet elements like rhyme, rhythm, and imagery
与其形式是不可分离的
are inseparable from the form.
以臭名昭著大先生的这句歌词为例
Take this lyric from the Notorious B.I.G.
我能听到汗水从你脸颊滑落
“I can hear sweat trickling down your cheek
你的心跳听起来就像大脚野人的脚在跺
Your heartbeat sound like Sasquatch feet
如雷鸣般 水泥地快被震破
Thundering, shaking the concrete.”
到现在为止 我们看到的例子里诗都是有换行符的
So far, all the examples we’ve seen have had line breaks.
我们甚至能想象到 开头阿里诗中的两个单词 如何在空中组织起来
We can even imagine the two words of Ali’s poem organizing in the air –
我 我们
Me, We.
诗歌有着一种通常情况下我们可以辨认出来的形状
Poetry has a shape that we can usually recognize.
它的换行符帮助读者掌握到一首诗的节奏
Its line breaks help readers navigate the rhythms of a poem.
但如果那些换行符消失了 怎么办
But what if those line breaks disappeared?
作为一首诗 它会失去自身精髓吗
Would it lose its essence as a poem?
可能不会哦
Maybe not.
现在 我们进入散文诗环节
Enter the prose poem.
散文诗惯用生动的象征和文字游戏
Prose poems use vivid images and wordplay
但也有其格式 比如形成了段落
but are formatted like paragraphs.
当我们更多地把诗歌看作一种概念 而不是一种形式的时候
When we look at poetry less as a form and more as a concept,
我们就能看到在我们周边的诗意
we can see the poetic all around us:
比如圣诗
spiritual hymns,
演说家的演讲 比如马丁·路德·金的
the speeches of orators like Martin Luther King, Jr.,
总统肯尼迪的
JFK,
温斯顿·丘吉尔的
and Winston Churchill,
还有一些令人惊喜的地方 比如在社交媒体上
and surprising places like social media.
2010年 新闻工作者乔安娜·史密斯在推特上发推 描述海底地震的最新消息
In 2010, journalist Joanna Smith tweeted updates from the earthquake in Haiti.
听到我的名字时在房间B里换衣服
“Was in b-room getting dressed when heard my name.
颤栗 通过推拉门跑了出来
Tremor. Ran outside through sliding door.
现在不震了 安全 有公鸡在啼叫
All still now. Safe. Roosters crowing.”
史密斯用的语言十分有力 直接
Smith uses language in a way that is powerful, direct,
且充满生动的画面感
and filled with vivid images.
可以将她的语言与俳句诗作对比
Compare her language to a haiku,
俳句诗是古日本的一种诗歌形式 着重描写一瞬爆发的短暂的激情
the ancient Japanese poetic form that emphasizes bursts of brief intensity
它只有三行 每行分别有五个 七个 然后又是五个音节
with just three lines of five, seven, and five syllables.
诗歌之潭 广又深
The waters of poetry run wide and deep.
随时间推移 诗歌慢慢进化
Poetry has evolved over time,
也许 相比以前 在现在
and perhaps now more than ever,
诗歌 散文 歌曲以及视觉艺术之间的界限已经模糊了
the line between poetry, prose, song, and visual art has blurred.
然而 有一件事是没变的
However, one thing has not changed.
实际上 诗的英文单词在一开始是动词形式的
The word poetry actually began in verb form,
它来源于古希腊语 Poïesis 意思是 去创造
coming from the ancient Greek poiesis, which means to create.
诗人 就像是工匠一样 仍在与世上未加工过的原材料打交道
Poets, like craftsman, still work with the raw materials of the world
用他们锻造出新的认识
to forge new understandings
然后以一种只有人类才能做到的方式 对身为人类这件事儿发表些意见
and comment on what it is to be human in a way only humans can.
英国达特茅斯的研究者们曾测试过这个概念 他们让机器人来写诗
Dartmouth researchers tested this idea by asking robots to pen poetry.
由一个评委小组来将一叠叠的十四行诗分类
A panel of judges sorted through stacks of sonnets
看看他们是否分辨哪些是人写的 哪些是机器人写的
to see if they could distinguish those made by man and machine.
你应该会感到欣喜 因为尽管科学们家们已成功地
You may be happy to know that while scientists have successfully
将人工智能用于制造业
used artificial intelligence in manufacturing,
用于医学
medicine,
甚至是旅游业
and even journalism,
诗歌就不是一回事儿了
poetry is a different story.
机器人写的诗 百分之百地 每次都被抓个正着
The robots were caught red-handed 100% of the time.

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视频概述

拳王阿里作过一首三字诗,被认为是世界上最短的诗。什么?三个字也能被称为一首诗?那诗究竟是什么呢?

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