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什么造就了英雄?

What makes a hero? - Matthew Winkler

What do Harry Potter,
那些像哈利波特
Katniss Everdeen, and Frodo
凯特尼斯·伊夫狄恩 (饥饿游戏)和佛罗多(指环王)
all have in common with the heroes of ancient myths?
和所有与古代神话中的英雄有什么共同点?
(Roar)
(吼)
What if I told you they are all variants of the same hero?
如果我告诉你,他们都是同一个英雄的变种?
Do you believe that?
你相信吗?
Joseph Campbell did.
约瑟夫·坎贝尔证明了这一切
He studied myths from all over the world and published a book called
他研究了来自世界各地的神话,并出版了一本叫做
‘The Hero with a Thousand Faces,’
千面英雄
retelling dozens of stories
经过几十个故事的复述
and explaining how each represents the mono-myth,
解释了每一个有代表性的神话
or Hero’s Journey.
或英雄的旅程
So, what is the ‘hero’s journey’?
那么 什么是“英雄之旅”?
Think of it as a cycle.
把它想象为一个循环
The journey begins and ends in a hero’s ordinary world,
这段旅程的开始与结束在一个英雄平凡的世界
but the quest passes through an unfamiliar, special world.
然而其中的探寻发生在为一个不为人知的特殊世界
Along the way, there are some key events.
在这期间有一些关键的事件不可不提
Think about your favorite book or movie.
想想你最喜爱的书籍或者电影
Does it follow this pattern?
它是以这种模式发展的吗?
Status quo, that’s where we start.
有人说 那就是我们开始的地方
1:00: Call to Adventure.
一点钟:召唤冒险
The hero receives a mysterious message.
这英雄收到一个神秘的信息
An invitation, a challenge?
一个邀请 一个挑战?
2:00: Assistance
两点钟:援助
The hero needs some help, probably from someone older, wiser.
英雄可能需要更年长、更聪慧的人的指点
3:00: Departure
三点钟:出发
The hero crosses the threshold from his normal, safe home,
英雄从的正常生活 安全的家门 越过大门
and enters the special world and adventure.
进入特别的世界去冒险
We’re not in Kansas anymore.
我们已没有退路了
4:00: Trials
四点钟:试验
Being a hero is hard work:
自古英雄多磨难
our hero solves a riddle,
我们的英雄解出了一个谜题
slays a monster,
杀死一个怪物
escapes from a trap.
逃脱一个陷阱
5:00: Approach
五点钟:临近
It’s time to face the biggest ordeal, the hero’s worst fear.
是时候面对的最严峻 但也是英雄最恐惧的考验了
(Roar)

6:00: Crisis
六点钟:危机
This is the hero’s darkest hour.
这是英雄的最黑暗的时刻
He faces death and possibly even dies,
他面对致命的危险甚至有可能死亡
only to be reborn.
只有得到涅盘
7:00: Treasure
七点钟:宝藏
(Roar)
(吼)
As a result, the hero claims some treasure,
结果 英雄索取一些宝藏
special recognition, or power.
特别的认可或力量
8:00: Result
八点钟:结果
This can vary between stories.
这会变化成不同的故事
Do the monsters bow down before the hero,
是怪物在英雄面前低头
or do they chase him as he flees from the special world?
还是怪物追逐他逃离的世界?
9:00: Return
9:00 回归
After all that adventure, the hero returns to his ordinary world.
经过了这一切冒险 英雄返回到他的平凡的世界
10:00: New Life
十点:新生活
This quest has changed the hero; he has outgrown his old life.
这个探索已经改变了英雄 他已经超越了他过去的生活
11:00: Resolution
11:00 决心
All the tangled plot lines get straightened out.
所有的纠结的情节线索得到理顺
12:00: Status Quo,
12:00:现状
but upgraded to a new level.
但英雄升级到了一个新的水平
Nothing is quite the same once you are a hero.
没有什么是完全一样的 一旦你是成为英雄
Many popular books and movies
许多流行书籍和电影
follow this ancient formula pretty closely.
与这个古老的公式非常接近
But let’s see how well ‘The Hunger Games’ fits the hero’s journey template.
但是让我们看看《饥饿游戏》是怎么符合英雄旅程的公式
When does Katniss Everdeen hear her call to adventure
当Katniss Everdeen听到她的冒险召唤
that gets the story moving?
那让故事会动吗?
When her sister’s name is called from the lottery.
当她妹妹的被称为从“碰运气”时
How about assistance?
如何援助?
Is anyone going to help her on her adventure?
她冒险时有人会帮助她吗?
Haymitch.
Haymitch
What about departure?
那离开呢?
Does she leave her ordinary world?
她是否离开了平凡的世界?
She gets on a train to the capital.
她乘做火车去首都
OK, so you get the idea.
好 你也该明白了
What do you have in common with Harry Potter,
哈利·波特 Katniss Everdeen以及Frodo
Katniss Everdeen, and Frodo?
和你有什么共同点?
Well, you’re human, just like them.
嗯 你是人 就像他们一样
The Hero’s Journey myth exists in all human cultures
所有英雄的旅程存在于人类文化中
and keeps getting updated,
而且不断得到更新
because we humans reflect on our world
因为我们人类会反思我们的世界
through symbolic stories of our own lives.
通过我们自己生活中的具有象征性的故事
You leave your comfort zone,
你离开了你的舒适区
have an experience that transforms you,
经历一些事件使你改变
and then you recover and do it again.
然后你又恢复了 于是你又再做一遍
You don’t literally slay dragons or fight Voldemort,
你并没有真正地杀死龙或是与伏地魔搏斗
but you face problems just as scary.
但你所面对的问题就很可怕
Joseph Campbell said,
Joseph Campbell
‘In the cave you fear to enter lies the treasure you seek.’
“你害怕进入的洞穴正藏着你要寻找的宝藏“
What is the symbolic cave you fear to enter?
你害怕进入的洞穴是什么?
Auditions for the school play?
在学校里演出的试镜?
Baseball tryouts?
棒球比赛吗?
Love?
爱情吗?
Watch for this formula in books, movies, and TV shows you come across.
在书籍、电影和电视中观看这个公式 你可以看到这一公式
You will certainly see it again.
你一定会再看到它
But also be sensitive to it in your own life.
但也你对它在生活中也要敏感
Listen for your call to adventure.
聆听你冒险的召唤
Accept the challenge.
接受挑战
Conquer your fear and claim the treasure you seek.
战胜你的恐惧 并索取你所寻求的宝藏
And then,
于是
do it all over again.
再做一遍

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hhk4N9A0oCA

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