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波粒二象性是什么 – 译学馆
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波粒二象性是什么

What is the Wave/Particle Duality? Part 1

We see particle-like behavior every day:
每天都能看到具有粒子特性的运动方式
drop a ball on the ground and it follows a single trajectory,
球会沿着一条轨迹落到地面
leave your giraffe parked on the street and
让长颈鹿停留在大街上
when you come back, it’s still there, just one giraffe.
当你返回时 它仍然会独自停留在那里
And we see wave behavior, too!
也能看到具有波动特性的运动方式
Toot your horn, and waves spread out through the air,
吹喇叭 声波会在空气中扩散开来
carrying sound to the ears of anyone around.
将声音传入周围每个人的耳朵里
Or drive a boat through water,
或者驾船驶过水面
and waves travel outwards along the surface.
波浪会沿着水面向外扩散
But when it comes to the physics of the very small,
但当提到微观层面的物理学时
what we see is a wave-particle duality.
我们看到的则是波粒二象性
Sometimes very small things
微观层面的事物
(we’re talking electrons & protons here)
这里我们讨论的是电子和质子
behave like particles,
有时表现出粒子性
and sometimes they behave like waves
有时表现出波动性
flip-floppers!
反复无常!
For example, if you release an electron,
例如 你要是释放出一个电子
it’ll travel outward as a wave through the room,
电子就会在房间中像声波一样向外扩散
but when it hits the wall, it’ll only hit in one place
但当电子撞到墙壁时 只会有一个撞击点
you started with one electron after all!
毕竟 最初也只释放了一个电子
So what if sound had a wave-particle duality?
如果声音具有波粒二象性会怎么样呢?
When you shouted,
当你大声说话时
the sound waves would spread outwards in all directions,
声波会向四面八方扩散
but only one person could hear what you said!
但能听到你说话的 却只有一个人!
Or when you drove your boat through the water,
或者当你驾船驶过水面时
the waves would travel like normal,
波浪会正常地向外扩散
but only hit the shore in one place,
但撞到岸边时 却只有一个撞击点
Now that would make for some pretty boring surfing!
这会让冲浪变得非常无趣

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分钟物理,今天让我们随作者一起了解什么是波粒二象性吧

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