大家好 我是爱玛 来自mmmEnglish
Hello I’m Emma from mmmEnglish!
This lesson is at the top of my request list.
So many of you have been asking me for a lesson
about the passive voice so I’m glad
that I finally got it ready for you. Now,
this can be a really confusing grammar
structure in English.
Lots of my students ask
“What’s the point of the passive voice?
Is it really that important?” Yes!
Understanding the passive voice is important.
In this lesson, you’ll learn what it looks like,
why it’s useful
and you’ll practise using it with me.
The passive voice is used often by native English speakers.
It’s a mistake to think that it’s only used
in formal speech.
It’s also used informally, quite a bit!
So stay with me through this entire lesson,
keep focused it’s not that long.
开始之前 提示一下 大家可以
Before we keep going, a quick little reminder to join
the mmmEnglish grammar challenge.
You’ll get to practise the 10 most common grammar
mistakes that English learners make
and learn how to avoid them with me.
And if you join and complete the challenge by
by the end of May,
you could win one of the many, many prizes
that we’ve got going on.
So why should you use the passive voice?
Well there are times when you don’t want to say who
or what did the action.
Maybe you’re trying to avoid responsibility
for something you did or you
don’t want to get your mate into trouble
or maybe you don’t know who did the action or
or because actually the object is the most important
or the most interesting part of the sentence.
So that’s the thing that the action is happening to
not the thing that is doing the action.
You can use the passive to change
the focus of your sentence.
So let’s go back a moment.
To understand the passive voice,
I should really first explain the active voice
but you already know it, it looks like like this.
The children ate the cake. Subject,
主语 谓语 宾语
Now most English sentences are more complicated than this but we’ll start simply.
The subject does the action to the object.
The children ate the cake. Now,
imagine that you left for work in the morning
and there was a whole cake on the kitchen table.
But by the time you got home,
it had completely disappeared.
You don’t know who ate it,
我意思是 你可以能会去猜 但是你不知道
I mean, you could probably guess, but you don’t know.
Where is this cake?
The cake was eaten
So the solution is to use the passive voice
because we don’t know who ate the cake. Now,
sometimes we’re just more interested
in the object of the sentence rather than the subject.
English speakers frequently use the passive voice.
But this lesson isn’t about English speakers,
it’s about the passive voice.
It’s the most important thing.
So we can change it to say the passive voice
is frequently used by English speakers.
Now you’ll often read passive sentences in newspapers
when the journalist can’t say who did something.
Maybe because they don’t know who did it.
It’s also used in scientific reports and legal documents
because the information has to be objective
so often there is no subject.
Now some other really common passive expressions
that you already know.
We don’t say”My mother bore me on June 23rd 1989.”
I was born on June 23rd 1989.
When your friend tells you about his new colleague,
he won’t say”People call him Tony”
he’ll say”He’s called Tony” or”He’s named Tony”
‘The Stand’ was written by Stephen King.
The movie Deadpool was directed by Tim Miller.
The national anthem was sung by Fergie.
In all of these really common examples,
you can see the structure of the passive voice.
The be verb followed by the past participle.
I thought we only use the past participle verb
in the perfect tenses?
Yeah we do use it in the perfect tenses
and in the passive voice.
If you see the be verb followed by
the past participle form, you know that this is a passive sentence.
So let’s go back to
the first example to explain the form
of a passive sentence.
If our active sentence is”The children ate the cake”
the passive sentence is
“The cake was eaten by the children”
The object of the active sentence becomes the subject
in the passive sentence.
To make the object of the active sentence
become the subject,
we actually need to change a few things in our sentence
So are you ready to learn how to do that?
Here’s our active sentence, to make a passive sentence,
we need to use the passive tense
and there are six steps to turn an active sentence
into a passive sentence.
Now you might want to take a notepad out
so that you can write them down as we go.
Step one, identify the subject, the verb and the object
of the active sentence.
Step two, move the object to become the new subject
of our sentence.
Step three, check the active sentence.
What is the verb tense in the active sentence?
This is really important because the passive voice
exists across different tenses
so you must check what tense the active sentence is in
to make your passive sentence correct.
It’s in the past simple,”The children ate the cake”.
Step four, conjugate the verb be
so that it’s in the same tense
as the main verb in the active sentence.
We need to change our be verb
verb to the past simple so it becomes was or were
depending on the new subject and
our new subject is the cake
so we can choose was,”The cake was”.
第五步 给be 之后动词加上过去分词
Step five, add the past participle of the main verb after be.
So looking back at the active sentence,
the main verb is eat,
though it’s in past simple form but can you think
of the past participle of eat? Eaten,
好 最后一步 第六步
Now the last step, step six,
you need to decide what to do with the subject
of your active sentence.
In the passive voice, you don’t have to include
the thing that is doing the action.
You can completely remove that former subject from your sentence
and that’s helpful if you don’t know who ate the cake
or you don’t want to say who it was
or you don’t care – maybe it’s not important.
But you can add it to the end of your sentence
with the word by.
The cake was eaten by the children.
Let’s look at some more examples together.
The house was built in 1893.
The car will be sold by the weekend.
The washing had been left out in the rain.
Many people’s lives were saved.
Can you see the passive form here?
The be verb is always there but it tells us the tense.
It helps to describe when something happened
and it also conjugates with the subject.
People’s lives were saved.
The house was built.
And the be verb is always followed
by the past participle.
We can also explain who or what did the action
by adding by.
The house was built by her grandfather.
This car will be sold by the salesman.
The washing had been left out in the rain
by her husband.
Many people’s lives were saved by the volunteers.
Okay let’s try a new sentence together.
I want you to do this one with me please.
Can you remember the six steps?
Someone has stolen my neighbour’s car.
This is an active sentence.
Now can you remember step number one?
很简单 明确主语 谓语和宾语
It’s easy! Identify the subject, verb and object.
Step two, make the object the subject.
Step three, tell me what tense is used in the original active sentence.
The present perfect tense.
Step four, you need to conjugate the be verb
so that it’s in the same tense.
The neighbor’s car has been.
We’re using has because the subject is now the car.
Step five, add the main verb in past participle form.
The neighbor’s car has been stolen.
It’s the same verb as the original sentence,
which was also the past participle.
Step six, decide
do you need to include the thing that did the action?
Is it really that important?
Maybe not because we don’t
really know anything about who did it,
it’s just someone.
I’d probably just leave it as my neighbor’s car has been stolen.
But if we knew a little bit more
about who or what did it,
we could definitely include it.
My neighbor’s car has been stolen by someone.
My neighbor’s car has been stolen by a monkey.
So the passive form always includes the be verb
with the past participle
and if you need to include any information about
what or who did the action use by. Okay,
I’ve got three more examples for you to practise with.
We made lots of money in 2002.
Lots of money was made by us in 2002.
I will clean the house on Monday.
The house will be cleaned by me on Monday.
He built the house for his parents.
The house was built by him for his parents.
Okay now that’s enough for this lesson
but there is actually a lot more to practise
about the passive voice
like how to use the negative forms and questions,
how to use modal verbs in the passive voice,
how to include adverbs of manner
to explain how something is done.
But there is enough information right there
for a whole new lesson so I’ll get to that.
Practise your passive sentences in the comments
under this video and make sure that you
subscribe to the mmmEnglish Channel if you haven’t already.
Just click that red button down there.
Then I can let you know when I
‘ve got a new lesson ready for you.
Don’t forget to sign up to the mmmEnglish grammar challenge,
you can do that right here.
Sign up and complete the challenge
before the end of May 2018
and you could win!
There are t-shirts to give away,
there are mmmEnglish courses
and five chances to meet me on Skype for conversation practice.
So come and join and improve your grammar with me.
That’s it from me today, I’ll see you next week
for another mmmEnglish lesson. Bye for now!
大家好 我是爱玛 来自mmmEnglish