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什么是被动语态?

What is the Passive Voice? 😅 English Grammar Lesson

大家好 我是爱玛 来自mmmEnglish
Hello I’m Emma from mmmEnglish!
这节课在我所有课程中的需求量是最大的
This lesson is at the top of my request list.
很多人一直都想让我开设这门
So many of you have been asking me for a lesson
关于被动语态的课程
about the passive voice so I’m glad
所以 非常开心能和大家进行分享
that I finally got it ready for you. Now,
这可能是英语语法中非常复杂的
this can be a really confusing grammar
一个结构
structure in English.
很多学生问我
Lots of my students ask
“被动语态的意义是什么?
“What’s the point of the passive voice?
它真的那么重要吗?” 是的
Is it really that important?” Yes!
理解被动语态的用法是很重要的
Understanding the passive voice is important.
这节课里 你可以学到它的结构
In this lesson, you’ll learn what it looks like,
明白它的作用
why it’s useful
同时你也能和我一起练习运用
and you’ll practise using it with me.
英语母语者经常使用被动语态
The passive voice is used often by native English speakers.
认为它只存在于正式演讲中
It’s a mistake to think that it’s only used
的想法是错误的
in formal speech.
非正式等场合也可以使用 也挺常见的!
It’s also used informally, quite a bit!
所以 和我一起学完整个课程
So stay with me through this entire lesson,
保持专注 就不会觉得时间很长
keep focused it’s not that long.
开始之前 提示一下 大家可以
Before we keep going, a quick little reminder to join
参与mmmEnglish语法挑战活动
the mmmEnglish grammar challenge.
你将练习十种英语学习者
You’ll get to practise the 10 most common grammar
最容易出错的语法结构
mistakes that English learners make
并跟着我学习如何避免犯错
and learn how to avoid them with me.
如果你能在五月底之前
And if you join and complete the challenge by
加入并完成这项挑战
by the end of May,
你能获得我们设立的
you could win one of the many, many prizes
其中一个奖项
that we’ve got going on.
回到正题 为什么要使用被动语态呢?
So why should you use the passive voice?
那是因为有时候我们不想点明
Well there are times when you don’t want to say who
动作的发出者是谁
or what did the action.
可能是为了避免
Maybe you’re trying to avoid responsibility
为自己做的事情负责
for something you did or you
或是不想让同伴陷入困境
don’t want to get your mate into trouble
或是你根本就不知道是谁做了这件事情
or maybe you don’t know who did the action or
或者句子的宾语才是最重要
or because actually the object is the most important
或最有趣的部分
or the most interesting part of the sentence.
所以事实上是事情发生了
So that’s the thing that the action is happening to
而不是谁在做这件事
not the thing that is doing the action.
你可以用被动语态来改变
You can use the passive to change
你句子中要强调的点
the focus of your sentence.
我们先回到开头来说
So let’s go back a moment.
为了理解被动语态
To understand the passive voice,
我得先解释主动语态
I should really first explain the active voice
你一定已经知道 就像这样
but you already know it, it looks like like this.
“孩子们吃了蛋糕”
The children ate the cake. Subject,
主语 谓语 宾语
verb, object.
现在大部分英文句子比这个更复杂 不过我们还是从简单的说起
Now most English sentences are more complicated than this but we’ll start simply.
主语对宾语执行动作
The subject does the action to the object.
孩子们吃了蛋糕
The children ate the cake. Now,
现在想象你早上出门去工作
imagine that you left for work in the morning
厨房餐桌上有一整块蛋糕
and there was a whole cake on the kitchen table.
但是当你回到家时
But by the time you got home,
蛋糕不见了
it had completely disappeared.
你不知道谁吃了蛋糕
You don’t know who ate it,
我意思是 你可以能会去猜 但是你不知道
I mean, you could probably guess, but you don’t know.
蛋糕在哪里?
Where is this cake?
蛋糕被某人
The cake was eaten
吃了
by somebody.
所以解决办法是使用被动语态
So the solution is to use the passive voice
因为我们不知道谁吃了蛋糕
because we don’t know who ate the cake. Now,
有时我们会对一个句子的宾语更感兴趣
sometimes we’re just more interested
而不是主语
in the object of the sentence rather than the subject.
英语人士经常会使用被动语态
English speakers frequently use the passive voice.
但是这堂课讨论的并不是英语人士
But this lesson isn’t about English speakers,
而是被动语态
it’s about the passive voice.
这才是最重要的
It’s the most important thing.
所以我们可以把它变成
So we can change it to say the passive voice
被动语态被说英语人士频繁使用
is frequently used by English speakers.
你会经常在报刊中读到被动语态
Now you’ll often read passive sentences in newspapers
因为记者不能说谁做了某事
when the journalist can’t say who did something.
或许是因为他们根本不知道是谁做的
Maybe because they don’t know who did it.
被动语态还用在科学报道和法律文件中
It’s also used in scientific reports and legal documents
因为里面的信息必须得客观
because the information has to be objective
所以经常没有主语
so often there is no subject.
还有其他一些你已知晓的常用
Now some other really common passive expressions
被动表达
that you already know.
出生
Be born.
我们不说 我妈妈于1989年6月23日生了我
We don’t say”My mother bore me on June 23rd 1989.”
而是 我出生于1989年6月23日
I was born on June 23rd 1989.
当你的朋友讲起他的新同事
When your friend tells you about his new colleague,
他不会说 “人们叫他托尼”
he won’t say”People call him Tony”
而是说 “他叫托尼或他名叫托尼”
he’ll say”He’s called Tony” or”He’s named Tony”
《末日逼近》由史蒂芬·金所写
‘The Stand’ was written by Stephen King.
电影《死侍》由提姆·米勒导演
The movie Deadpool was directed by Tim Miller.
国歌由菲姬演唱
The national anthem was sung by Fergie.
在所有这些常见例子当中
In all of these really common examples,
你可以看到被动语态的结构
you can see the structure of the passive voice.
谓语动词be后面跟着过去分词
The be verb followed by the past participle.
我以为我们在完成时态里才使用
I thought we only use the past participle verb
过去分词呢?
in the perfect tenses?
是的 我们确实在完成时态里使用它
Yeah we do use it in the perfect tenses
但同时被动语态也用
and in the passive voice.
如果你发现谓语动词be后跟着
If you see the be verb followed by
过去分词 你可以判断这就是被动句
the past participle form, you know that this is a passive sentence.
接下来我们回到
So let’s go back to
第一个解释被动语态形式
the first example to explain the form
的例子
of a passive sentence.
如果主动句是 “孩子们吃了蛋糕”
If our active sentence is”The children ate the cake”
那被动句为
the passive sentence is
“蛋糕被孩子们吃了”
“The cake was eaten by the children”
主动句的宾语变成了被动句
The object of the active sentence becomes the subject
的主语
in the passive sentence.
为了让主动句的宾语
To make the object of the active sentence
变成主语
become the subject,
我们需要在句子中进行一点改变
we actually need to change a few things in our sentence
准备好学习怎么来变化吧
So are you ready to learn how to do that?
这句是主动句 将其变成被动句
Here’s our active sentence, to make a passive sentence,
我们需要使用被动语态
we need to use the passive tense
这里有六个步骤可将主动句
and there are six steps to turn an active sentence
变为被动句
into a passive sentence.
你也许需要拿出笔记本
Now you might want to take a notepad out
这样就可以把我们讲的都记下来
so that you can write them down as we go.
第一步 明确主动句中的
Step one, identify the subject, the verb and the object
主语 谓语和宾语
of the active sentence.
第二步 把宾语移动到新的主语
Step two, move the object to become the new subject
位置
of our sentence.
第三步 查看主动句
Step three, check the active sentence.
主动句的谓语动词用了什么时态?
What is the verb tense in the active sentence?
这很重要 因为被动语态
This is really important because the passive voice
也有不同的时态
exists across different tenses
所以你必须查看主动句用了什么时态
so you must check what tense the active sentence is in
这样你的被动句才是对的
to make your passive sentence correct.
这句话用了过去式 “孩子们吃了蛋糕”
It’s in the past simple,”The children ate the cake”.
很棒!
Good!
第四步 改变谓语动词be
Step four, conjugate the verb be
为了确保它的时态与
so that it’s in the same tense
主动句的动词时态一致
as the main verb in the active sentence.
我们需要把be 动词变为
We need to change our be verb
过去式was或were
verb to the past simple so it becomes was or were
这取决于新的主语
depending on the new subject and
我们的新主语是蛋糕
our new subject is the cake
所以我们选择was “蛋糕是(was)”
so we can choose was,”The cake was”.
第五步 给be 之后动词加上过去分词
Step five, add the past participle of the main verb after be.
再回到主动句
So looking back at the active sentence,
主要动词是吃(eat)
the main verb is eat,
尽管它已经是一般过去式了 但是再想想
though it’s in past simple form but can you think
eat的过去分词是什么? eaten
of the past participle of eat? Eaten,
对啦
right?
好 最后一步 第六步
Now the last step, step six,
你需要决定怎么处理主动句
you need to decide what to do with the subject
中的主语
of your active sentence.
孩子们
The children.
在被动语态中 你不一定要包括
In the passive voice, you don’t have to include
执行动作的人或事
the thing that is doing the action.
你完全可以移去之前句中的主语
You can completely remove that former subject from your sentence
如果你不知道谁吃了蛋糕 这样做很有帮助
and that’s helpful if you don’t know who ate the cake
或者你不想说是谁吃了
or you don’t want to say who it was
亦或你不介意 这不重要
or you don’t care – maybe it’s not important.
不过你也可以把它放到句尾
But you can add it to the end of your sentence
加上被字
with the word by.
蛋糕被孩子们吃了
The cake was eaten by the children.
我们再来看几个例子
Let’s look at some more examples together.
“房子被建于1893年”
The house was built in 1893.
“这辆车到周末将会被售卖”
The car will be sold by the weekend.
“刚洗过的衣服被遗落在雨中”
The washing had been left out in the rain.
“许多人的生命被拯救”
Many people’s lives were saved.
你能看出被动语态吗?
Can you see the passive form here?
be一直存在 但告知了我们时态
The be verb is always there but it tells us the tense.
它有助于描述所发生的事
It helps to describe when something happened
也根据主语进行形式变化
and it also conjugates with the subject.
人们的生命被拯救
People’s lives were saved.
房子被建
The house was built.
be 动词后面始终跟着
And the be verb is always followed
过去分词
by the past participle.
我们还可以解释谁或什么东西做了某事
We can also explain who or what did the action
通过加被字
by adding by.
“房子由爷爷所建”
The house was built by her grandfather.
“这辆车将由销售员售卖”
This car will be sold by the salesman.
“刚洗过的衣服被丈夫
The washing had been left out in the rain
遗落在雨里”
by her husband.
“许多人的生命被志愿者拯救”
Many people’s lives were saved by the volunteers.
好啦 我们再来一起看一个句子
Okay let’s try a new sentence together.
我希望你能跟我一起做
I want you to do this one with me please.
还记得那六个步骤吗?
Can you remember the six steps?
“有人偷了我邻居的车”
Someone has stolen my neighbour’s car.
这是主动句
This is an active sentence.
记得第一步吗?
Now can you remember step number one?
很简单 明确主语 谓语和宾语
It’s easy! Identify the subject, verb and object.
第二步 把宾语变成主语
Step two, make the object the subject.
第三步 告诉我原来的主动句用了什么时态
Step three, tell me what tense is used in the original active sentence.
现在完成时
The present perfect tense.
第四步 你需要给be动词做形式变化
Step four, you need to conjugate the be verb
为了使时态保持一致
so that it’s in the same tense.
邻居的车已经被…
The neighbor’s car has been.
我们用has 因为主语是一辆车
We’re using has because the subject is now the car.
第五步 添加过去分词形式的主要动词
Step five, add the main verb in past participle form.
邻居的车已经被偷了
The neighbor’s car has been stolen.
与原句的动词一致
It’s the same verb as the original sentence,
刚好也用的是过去分词
which was also the past participle.
第六步 做决定
Step six, decide
你需要包括执行动作的人或事吗
do you need to include the thing that did the action?
它很重要吗
Is it really that important?
也许不重要
Maybe not because we don’t
因为我们不知道到底谁做的
really know anything about who did it,
只是某人
it’s just someone.
我还是直接这样说 我邻居的车已经被偷了
I’d probably just leave it as my neighbor’s car has been stolen.
但是如果我们知道一点关于
But if we knew a little bit more
是谁做的话
about who or what did it,
我们当然要包括进来
we could definitely include it.
我邻居的车已经被某人偷了
My neighbor’s car has been stolen by someone.
我邻居的车已经被一只猴子偷了
My neighbor’s car has been stolen by a monkey.
所以被动形式通常要包括be动词
So the passive form always includes the be verb
再加上过去分词
with the past participle
如果你需要包括谁执行了动作的信息
and if you need to include any information about
使用被字 好啦
what or who did the action use by. Okay,
我还有三个例子给你练习
I’ve got three more examples for you to practise with.
“我们在2002年挣了很多钱”
We made lots of money in 2002.
“2002年很多钱被我们挣了”
Lots of money was made by us in 2002.
“我星期一将打扫房子”
I will clean the house on Monday.
“星期一房子将被我打扫”
The house will be cleaned by me on Monday.
“他为父母建了房子”
He built the house for his parents.
“为了父母房子是被他建的”
The house was built by him for his parents.
好啦 我们的课程就是这些
Okay now that’s enough for this lesson
不过还要多加练习
but there is actually a lot more to practise
被动语态
about the passive voice
比如如何在被动中用否定句和疑问句
like how to use the negative forms and questions,
如何在被动语态中使用情态动词
how to use modal verbs in the passive voice,
如何添加方式副词
how to include adverbs of manner
来解释某事如何被做
to explain how something is done.
这里有足够的信息
But there is enough information right there
我将会开设新的课程
for a whole new lesson so I’ll get to that.
在这个视频下方评论区来练习被动句吧
Practise your passive sentences in the comments
如果你还没有订购我们的节目
under this video and make sure that you
赶紧加入吧
subscribe to the mmmEnglish Channel if you haven’t already.
只要点击下方的红色键就可以了
Just click that red button down there.
我会通知你们
Then I can let you know when I
如果我准备了新过程的话
‘ve got a new lesson ready for you.
别忘了报名我们的mmmEnglish语法挑战赛
Don’t forget to sign up to the mmmEnglish grammar challenge,
你可以在这里报名
you can do that right here.
报名及完成挑战
Sign up and complete the challenge
截止日期2018年五月底
before the end of May 2018
你会赢的
and you could win!
我们还会给出T恤衫
There are t-shirts to give away,
还包括mmmEnglish课程
there are mmmEnglish courses
有五个机会可以与我在Skype进行谈话练习
and five chances to meet me on Skype for conversation practice.
来加入我们 跟我一起练语法
So come and join and improve your grammar with me.
这就是我今天要讲的内容 我们下周新的课程见
That’s it from me today, I’ll see you next week
再见啦!
for another mmmEnglish lesson. Bye for now!

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视频概述

讲解非常生动形象,初学者一听就懂哦

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

fancyzeng

审核员

审核员A

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nkAyggAM1q4

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