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世界上最致命的物质 – 译学馆
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世界上最致命的物质

What is the Deadliest Substance in the World?

This video was made possible by SquareSpace.
本视频由SquareSpace赞助播出
Start building your website for free at squarespace.com/RLL, and then
squarespace.com/Rll可以免费为你创建网站
when you’re ready to launch, use the code”RLL” to get 10% off at checkout.
结账时使用代码“RLL”可享九折优惠
Life on earth can be a dangerous one
自然界中存在许多致命的生物
Some things are poisonous, other things have sharp teeth,
它们有些身藏剧毒 有些尖牙利齿
and more things can kill you without you even noticing.
更有些生物能杀人于不经意间
In theory, anything could kill you.
理论上说 任何东西都可能要了你的命
Really,it just depends on how much or how little level gets inside of you
实际上 这取决于被咬后你体内毒素的含量
In this video,
本视频中
I’ll be comparing the most dangerous materials and substances known to mankind with
我将比较这些危险物质和人类熟知的物质
a lethal dose being administered to an average human weighing 62 kilograms.
对应平均体重62kg的人群的致死量
If you weigh less than that, these doses will all be smaller for you,
如果你的体重小于62公斤 致死所需剂量相对更少
and if you weigh more then the doses will be greater.
如果体重大于62公斤 所需剂量就更多
So considering the weight of the average human,
那么 以62公斤的平均体重作为考虑对象
we’re going to start off with regular water.
我们先从日常的水开始
In order to die from a lethal dose of water,
如果喝水喝到死的话
you would need to drink 5.6 kilograms or one and a half
你需要极短的时间内喝掉5.6公斤
gallons in a rapid amount of time.
即1.5加仑的水
Other common household items you need to consume a ridiculous amount
其他日常家用的调料 需要很大的剂量
of to die from include table sugar
才会导致死亡 比如蔗糖
which you would need to slam down
你要狂吃
1.8 kilos worth of to die from.
1.8公斤的蔗糖才可能致死
But if you’re feeling salty,
但如果你想来点咸的
you need to consume a whole kilogram of MSG to die that way.
进食味精致死需要整整1公斤
Death by Vitamin C requires you consuming 738 grams,
维生素C的致死剂量是738g
and death by alcohol means you need to consume
酗酒致死意味着你得摄入
438 grams of pure ethanol,
438克的纯乙醇
which is roughly 25 shots worth of 80 proof vodka.
大概是80度的伏特加喝个25杯
If you prefer smoking, then you should know that it takes 79 grams
如果你更喜欢抽烟 你要知道
of pure THC to create a lethal response inside of the body.
79克纯THC就会在身体中产生致命反应
Since cannabis leaves only have a small amount of THC inside of them
但大麻烟叶中的THC含量很低
you would need to smoke an
你需要在15分钟内吸食
outrageous amount of weed to die from an overdose,
超量的大麻烟叶才可能THC过量致死
approximately 680 kilograms
这个量大约680公斤
or half the weight of a Toyota Corolla, in 15 minutes.
相当于半辆丰田卡罗拉
Drugs like Ibuprofen can be lethal at around 40 grams,
布洛芬一类的药物致死量约40g
which is about the same weight as an adult mouse,
相当于一只成年老鼠的体重
while chemicals like hydrochloric acid approach lethal levels at about 15 grams.
而像盐酸这样的化学品 仅约15克就足以致命
In a concentrated, pure form, caffeine can kill you in as little as 12 grams.
注意 浓缩的纯咖啡因仅需12g就可致命
But that shouldn’t make you worry about drinking coffee drinks
但是不必因此对咖啡饮品心存忌惮
because you would need to consume 116 cans of Red Bull,
因为你需要喝掉116罐红牛
or 60 cups of Americano coffee to induce a lethal reaction that way.
或60杯美式咖啡才可能致死
Drugs like MDMA, or Ecstacy,
像亚甲二氧基甲基苯丙胺或摇头丸这样的药物
are much worse with a lethal dose being around 11 grams worth.
则危险得多 约11克就可致命
Eating a block of Uranium about the same size as a €1 coin
食用一枚一欧元硬币大小的铀块
would probably be enough to kill,
就可能致人死亡
while consuming a US quarter-weight worth of cocaine would also do the trick.
摄入25美分的古柯碱结果也是一样
Thiopental Sodium, the ingredient used in most lethal injections,
硫喷妥钠被应用在大部分注射死刑中
can induce a fatal reaction in as little as 4 grams
仅仅4克就会引起致命反应
While methamphetamine can do the same in just 3 and a half grams.
而冰毒致死只需3.5克
But Mercury is even worse
但汞更致命
an extremely toxic metal used in applications like thermometers that can
它是一种剧毒金属 被应用于日用品如体温计
kill you with as little as a US penny-sized amount.
它只需一美分硬币大小的量就能致人死亡
But after this point is where we arrive
现在我们来看看
at the most lethal hard recreational drugs,
最致命的娱乐性毒品
Heroin and LSD, both of which can kill
海洛因和迷幻药 这两种物质
you in as little as one gram, or
只需要1克就能致死
about the same weight as two raisins.
大概相当于两粒葡萄干的重量
In its pure form Nicotine
若是纯尼古丁
can also be lethal in doses as small as 403 milligrams.
仅仅403毫克就可致命
But since tobacco leaves have so little,
但由于烟叶中尼古丁含量很低
your only risk of dying from smoking cigarettes
吸烟存在死亡的唯一风险
is the long-term health effects associated with them, like cancer.
是与长期吸烟会影响健康有关 比如吸烟致癌
The most venomous scorpion in the world
世界上最毒的蝎子
is the appropriately named Deathstalker Scorpion
是被形象称为以色列金蝎的蝎子
and its venom can kill you in a dose age as small as 267 milligrams
它的毒液只需267毫克就可以致人死亡
which is only slightly less dangerous than
致命性仅稍逊于氰化氢
Hydrogen Cyanide, which can kill you in as little as 229 milligrams,
氰化氢只需229毫克
or about the same as a one-carat diamond.
或约重1克拉的剂量就可致死
But nothing that we’ve covered so far is as dangerous
但目前为止 我们所讲物质的致命性都不如
as what’s about to come next.
接下来要讲的
Pufferfish are infamously poisonous and can be fatal to eat
河豚的毒性臭名昭著 食用它可能会性命之忧
since they contain the toxin called tetrodotoxin,
因为它们含有河豚毒素
and ingesting an amount as small as only 21 milligrams could be enough to kill you.
仅21毫克就足以致人死亡
This is almost as toxic as Plutonium,
钚的毒性和河豚毒素类似
which if it’s not being used in a nuclear bomb to kill you,
如果不用核爆的方式
a small sample size of 20 milligrams would also leave you just as dead.
仅需20mg钚就可致人死亡
If eating mushrooms freaks you out,
人们害怕吃蘑菇
there’s a pretty good reason for that because eating just half
也是有恰当的理由 因为吃一口
of a so-called death cap mushroom would be very, very fatal.
所谓的死帽菇就会立即死亡
This is because they contain amatoxin,
这是因为它们含有鹅膏毒素
19 milligrams of which will kill you if ingested.
19毫克就会致人死亡
But there’s still a lot worse to come.
但自然界还有更致命的毒素
Sarin, an odorless and colorless liquid,
沙林 一种无色无味的液体
is so dangerous that it’s classified as a weapon of mass destruction under international law.
由于其致命性而被国际法列为大规模的杀伤武器
Often used in chemical weapons, a lethal dose amounts to just 11 milligrams,
通常用于制备化学武器 仅11毫克就可致死
or about the size of a grain of sand.
大概一粒沙子大小
Inhaling a lethal amount can kill you in just 1 to 10 minutes.
只要吸入11毫克的沙林就会在1到10分钟内死亡
And even in you survive, permanent nerve damage is almost a guarantee.
即使有幸存活 大部分也会遗留永久性神经损伤
But weirdly, there’s still creatures out there
但奇怪的是 自然界仍有比
that produce more potent poison than a weapon of mass destruction.
大规模杀伤性武器的毒素更致命的物质
Like the Brazilian Wandering Spider,
比如巴西漫游蜘蛛
whose venom can kill you in amounts as small as 8 milligrams.
它的毒液仅需要8毫克就能致人死亡
Or the Inland Taipan Snake, found in Australia,
或澳大利亚的内陆太攀蛇
whose venom can kill you in a dose as small as 2 milligrams,
2毫克的毒液就会致人死亡
or the weight of a mosquito.
这相当于一只蚊子的重量
The extremely powerful toxin Ricin,
极其致命的蓖麻毒素
produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, can kill you if you inhale even one milligram,
产生于蓖麻的种子中 只吸入1毫克就会致命
which has made it popular for assassination attempts and biological warfare around the world.
这使得蓖麻毒素常用于世界各地的暗杀和生物战中
But latrotoxin, the venom produced by the Black Widow spider,
但黑寡妇蜘蛛产生的蛛毒素
will kill you even quicker in amounts as small as just 267 micrograms.
即使只有267微克 也会致命
The strongest poison any known creature makes on its own is batrachotoxin,
自然界已知毒性最强的物质是箭毒蛙毒素
found in the so-called Poison Dart Frog
存在于箭毒蛙体内
124 micrograms is all it takes to kill you,
仅124微克就可以致人死亡
about the same weight as two human eyelashes.
也就相当于人们两根睫毛的重量
But there are at least two substances that are even worse.
但毒性比不上接下来要说的两种物质
One is called Polonium-210,
一个是钋-210
so dangerous that that if you inhale just 620 nanograms, about the same as
致命到如果你只吸入620纳克 也就是相当于
two to three grains of pollen, you would die an agonizing death.
2到3粒花粉的分量 就会极度痛苦地死去
it is 250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide,
它的毒性是氰化氢的25万倍
and was used to assassinate Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko back in 2006.
曾在2006年用于暗杀俄罗斯异见者Alexander Litvinenko
But by far, the most lethal toxin known to mankind is Botulinum toxin,
但目前为止 人类已知最致命的毒素是肉毒杆菌素
which is commercially sold as Botox.
商业售卖上被称为Botox
62 nanograms is all it takes to make you dead,
62纳克就足以致人死亡
about the same weight as 62 of your body’s cells.
相当于身体中62个细胞的重量
It’s 2.5 million times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide,
它的毒性是氰化氢的250万倍
but only very tiny fractions of that lethal dose
但只有极少含量的肉毒杆菌素
are used in commercial Botox.
用在商业中的Botox中
Doctors and medical professionals that administer
医生和医学专业人士都会
Botox have websites than can explain much more about this than I can in a short video.
有专门网站来介绍Botox 这里就不再说明了
But if you’re looking to create your own website to help explain what kind of business you do
但如果你想创建自己的网站来让大家认识你的事业
there is no better place to go to next than SquareSpace.
SquareSpace是你最好的选择
Regardless of what it is you do, whether it’s podcasting, art,
不管你是做什么的 播客也好 艺术也罢
blogging, or you’re looking to create your own
写微博 或是你想创建你自己的
YouTube channel, you need a way for people to find you online.
YouTube视频 还是你需要在网络中展示自己
SquareSpace can seriously help individuals and small businesses
SquareSpace都适合个人和小公司
like you and me make something that was
像你或者我这样的 去制作一些
previously only available to huge corporations, an amazing, beautifully designed and
之前只有大公司才能设计出的美轮美奂的
professional-looking website.
专业网站
With their intuitive and easy-to-use website builder,
凭借其直观易用的网站构建器
beautiful design templates, reliable 24/7 customer support, and reasonable prices,
美观的设计模板 全天候技术支持和合理的价格
SquareSpace is the best place to build your online presence and
SquareSpace是您建立网络形象
create a lasting first impression when people search for and discover you.
和人们第一次登录所产生的第一印象的不二选择
And best of all,
最重要的是
you can try out SquareSpace for free right now by going to squarespace.com/RLL
你现在可以通过squarespace.com/RLL免费试用SquareSpace
and then when you’re ready to launch, you can get 10% off by using the code”RLL” at checkout.
然后当你准备建立网站时 你可以在结账时使用代码“RLL”获得九折优惠

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视频概述

你想不到生命如此脆弱,这里有许多物质能让你的生命戛然而止,我们一起看看都有什么吧。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

仙人球

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSnlnMgAyg0

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