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#### 世界上最致命的物质

What is the Deadliest Substance in the World?

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Life on earth can be a dangerous one

Some things are poisonous, other things have sharp teeth,

and more things can kill you without you even noticing.

In theory, anything could kill you.

Really,it just depends on how much or how little level gets inside of you

In this video,

I’ll be comparing the most dangerous materials and substances known to mankind with

a lethal dose being administered to an average human weighing 62 kilograms.

If you weigh less than that, these doses will all be smaller for you,

and if you weigh more then the doses will be greater.

So considering the weight of the average human,

we’re going to start off with regular water.

In order to die from a lethal dose of water,

you would need to drink 5.6 kilograms or one and a half

gallons in a rapid amount of time.

Other common household items you need to consume a ridiculous amount

of to die from include table sugar

which you would need to slam down

1.8 kilos worth of to die from.
1.8公斤的蔗糖才可能致死
But if you’re feeling salty,

you need to consume a whole kilogram of MSG to die that way.

Death by Vitamin C requires you consuming 738 grams,

and death by alcohol means you need to consume

438 grams of pure ethanol,
438克的纯乙醇
which is roughly 25 shots worth of 80 proof vodka.

If you prefer smoking, then you should know that it takes 79 grams

of pure THC to create a lethal response inside of the body.
79克纯THC就会在身体中产生致命反应
Since cannabis leaves only have a small amount of THC inside of them

you would need to smoke an

outrageous amount of weed to die from an overdose,

approximately 680 kilograms

or half the weight of a Toyota Corolla, in 15 minutes.

Drugs like Ibuprofen can be lethal at around 40 grams,

while chemicals like hydrochloric acid approach lethal levels at about 15 grams.

In a concentrated, pure form, caffeine can kill you in as little as 12 grams.

But that shouldn’t make you worry about drinking coffee drinks

because you would need to consume 116 cans of Red Bull,

or 60 cups of Americano coffee to induce a lethal reaction that way.

Drugs like MDMA, or Ecstacy,

are much worse with a lethal dose being around 11 grams worth.

Eating a block of Uranium about the same size as a €1 coin

would probably be enough to kill,

while consuming a US quarter-weight worth of cocaine would also do the trick.

Thiopental Sodium, the ingredient used in most lethal injections,

can induce a fatal reaction in as little as 4 grams

While methamphetamine can do the same in just 3 and a half grams.

But Mercury is even worse

an extremely toxic metal used in applications like thermometers that can

kill you with as little as a US penny-sized amount.

But after this point is where we arrive

at the most lethal hard recreational drugs,

Heroin and LSD, both of which can kill

you in as little as one gram, or

about the same weight as two raisins.

In its pure form Nicotine

can also be lethal in doses as small as 403 milligrams.

But since tobacco leaves have so little,

your only risk of dying from smoking cigarettes

is the long-term health effects associated with them, like cancer.

The most venomous scorpion in the world

is the appropriately named Deathstalker Scorpion

and its venom can kill you in a dose age as small as 267 milligrams

which is only slightly less dangerous than

Hydrogen Cyanide, which can kill you in as little as 229 milligrams,

or about the same as a one-carat diamond.

But nothing that we’ve covered so far is as dangerous

as what’s about to come next.

Pufferfish are infamously poisonous and can be fatal to eat

since they contain the toxin called tetrodotoxin,

and ingesting an amount as small as only 21 milligrams could be enough to kill you.

This is almost as toxic as Plutonium,

which if it’s not being used in a nuclear bomb to kill you,

a small sample size of 20 milligrams would also leave you just as dead.

If eating mushrooms freaks you out,

there’s a pretty good reason for that because eating just half

of a so-called death cap mushroom would be very, very fatal.

This is because they contain amatoxin,

19 milligrams of which will kill you if ingested.
19毫克就会致人死亡
But there’s still a lot worse to come.

Sarin, an odorless and colorless liquid,

is so dangerous that it’s classified as a weapon of mass destruction under international law.

Often used in chemical weapons, a lethal dose amounts to just 11 milligrams,

or about the size of a grain of sand.

Inhaling a lethal amount can kill you in just 1 to 10 minutes.

And even in you survive, permanent nerve damage is almost a guarantee.

But weirdly, there’s still creatures out there

that produce more potent poison than a weapon of mass destruction.

Like the Brazilian Wandering Spider,

whose venom can kill you in amounts as small as 8 milligrams.

Or the Inland Taipan Snake, found in Australia,

whose venom can kill you in a dose as small as 2 milligrams,
2毫克的毒液就会致人死亡
or the weight of a mosquito.

The extremely powerful toxin Ricin,

produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, can kill you if you inhale even one milligram,

which has made it popular for assassination attempts and biological warfare around the world.

But latrotoxin, the venom produced by the Black Widow spider,

will kill you even quicker in amounts as small as just 267 micrograms.

The strongest poison any known creature makes on its own is batrachotoxin,

found in the so-called Poison Dart Frog

124 micrograms is all it takes to kill you,

about the same weight as two human eyelashes.

But there are at least two substances that are even worse.

One is called Polonium-210,

so dangerous that that if you inhale just 620 nanograms, about the same as

two to three grains of pollen, you would die an agonizing death.
2到3粒花粉的分量 就会极度痛苦地死去
it is 250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide,

and was used to assassinate Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko back in 2006.

But by far, the most lethal toxin known to mankind is Botulinum toxin,

which is commercially sold as Botox.

62 nanograms is all it takes to make you dead,
62纳克就足以致人死亡

It’s 2.5 million times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide,

but only very tiny fractions of that lethal dose

are used in commercial Botox.

Doctors and medical professionals that administer

Botox have websites than can explain much more about this than I can in a short video.

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SquareSpace都适合个人和小公司
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