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最好的模拟液体的方法 – 译学馆
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最好的模拟液体的方法

What is The Best Way To Simulate Liquids? | Two Minute Papers #189

亲爱的学霸们 这是由Károly Zsolnai-Fehér带来的两分钟论文
Dear Fellow Scholars, this is Two Minute Papers with Károly Zsolnai-Fehér.
从这个系列中你们知道
As you know from this series,
能模拟出高保真视频画面的液体模拟技术
fluid simulation techniques that are able to create high fidelity video footage
在计算机图画研究中已经很成熟了
are in abundance in computer graphics research.
这些技术都有它们各自的优缺点
These techniques all have their own tradeoffs,
当我们评估时
and when we evaluate them,
我们经常用一阶精度或二阶精度这样的词
we often use terms like first or second-order accuracy,
都是数学术语
which are mathematical terms.
我们经常要通过数学方式来评比这些技术
We often have to evaluate these techniques against each other by means of mathematics,
因为通过这个方法 我们能建立起一致且
because this way, we can set up consistent
无偏向的比较 让每个人都能理解并认可
and unbiased comparisons that everyone understands and agrees upon.
然而最终 在展示成果时
However, ultimately, in the show business,
重要的是观众是如何看待最终成果的
what matters is how the viewers perceive the end result,
他们是觉得那看起来很假 还是从未起疑
whether they think it looks fake, or if it keeps their suspension of disbelief.
我们可选的不仅是模拟技术
We have the choice of not only simulation techniques,
还有他们自带的一系列参数
but all of them also have their own set of parameters.
比如 我们模拟的分辨率越高
For instance, the higher the resolution of our simulations,
视频画面中就会有越多的高频细节
the more high-frequency details appear in the footage.
然而过了某个点后 要进一步提高分辨率则会非常昂贵了
However, after a point, increasing the resolution further is extremely costly,
另外 尽管从数学角度来说 我们知道结果会如何优化
and while we know what is to be gained in terms of mathematics,
但我们不知道对于用户来说效果怎样
it is still unknown how well it would do with the users.
所以最终问题是
So the ultimate question is this:
我花费的钱和时间为我换来了什么?
what do I get for my money and time?
这篇论文提供了一个详尽的用户研究来回答这个问题
This paper provides an exhaustive user study to answer this question,
在该研究中 用户要观察两个不同的模拟
where the users are asked to look at two different simulations
然后告诉我们
and as a binary choice, tell us which is the one
他们看到的哪一个更接近参照物
they perceived to be closer to the reference.
参照视频是液体在水缸中晃荡的真实画面
The reference footage is a real-world video of a water sloshing in a tank,
另一个待评价的画面是通过液体模拟算法创造的
and the other footage that is to be judged is created via a fluid simulation algorithm.
结果发现 只要水一直在喷溅泼洒
Turns out that the reference footage can be almost anything
哪个视频都可以是参照视频
as long as there are some splashing and sloshing going on in it.
还发现 过了一个相对偏好的临界点
It also turns out that after a relatively favorable breaking point
也就是2x分辨率后
which is denoted by 2x,
进一步提高分辨率并不会让用户体验提升
further increasing the resolution does not make a significant difference in the user scores.
但伙计们 这改变了计算时间
But boy, does it change the computation times!
这就是为什么这样的研究非常有用
So this is why such studies are super useful,
看到技术的精确性能同时以数学算法和
and it’s great to see that the accuracy of these techniques are measured both mathematically,
用户体验为计量标准 这棒极了
and also how convincing they actually look for users.
另一个有趣的发现是 如果我们不给出参照视频
Another curious finding is that if we deny access to the reference footage,
用户的反馈就会发生极大的变化
we see a large change in different responses
同时出现大量的模棱两可的选择
and a similar jump in ambiguity.
这意味着我们不擅长辨识极细微的细节
This means that we are reasonably bad at predicting the fine details,
因此 如果某个模拟恰好对了用户的胃口
therefore, if the simulation pushes the right buttons,
用户就会轻易相信它是真实的
the users will easily believe it to be correct
即便它远不像真实的情况
even if it is far away from the ground truth solution.
这个视频画面矩阵 包含大量已渲染的画面
Here is a matrix with a ton of rendered footage.
水平方向上 有通过不同模拟技术模拟出来的同一事物
Horizontally, you see the same thing with different simulation techniques,
垂直方向上 从顶端的透明逐渐到底端的不透明
and vertically, we slowly go from transparent above to opaque below.
为了让实验公正并真实揭示最划算的选择
To keep things fair and really reveal which choices are the best bang for the buck,
计算时间相近的模拟技术之间也会作比较
there are also comparisons between techniques that have a similar computation time.
在这情况下 流体粒子隐式法 简称FLIP
In these cases, the Fluid Implicit Particle.FLIP in short
和仿射质点网格法无疑是最佳选择
and the Affine Particle in Cell, are almost unanimously favorable.
这些先进技术结合了质点和栅格模拟
These are advanced techniques that combine particle and grid-based simulations.
我觉得 这为实时应用软件提供了有用信息
I think this is highly useful information for more time critical applications,
一定要去看一下论文了解更多详情噢
so make sure to have a look at the paper for details.
在半透明光泽材质模拟上也有类似的用户研究
There are similar user studies with glossy and translucent material models
论文中还有更多内容
and much more in the paper.
这个项目的源代码也能找到
The source code of this project is also available.
感谢你的观看和慷慨支持
Thanks for watching and for your generous support,
下期再见
and I’ll see you next time!

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视频概述

从观众体验的角度选出最省钱省时间的液体模拟方法

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TItYXBoJ1sc

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