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你听到了什么颜色? – 译学馆
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你听到了什么颜色?

What is Synesthesia? Animation

联觉是指当某个特定感官受到刺激时
Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which stimulation of a certain sensation
另一不相关的感官同时也受到刺激
leads to a simultaneous activation of another unrelated sensory pathway
比如有的联觉者听到声音时会看到色彩
for example some synesthetessee colors when they hear sounds
有的联觉者在听到与味道没关系的词时 却尝到了味道
while others can taste distinct flavors when they hear unrelated words
这种过程不仅涉及到五感 也涉及到了认知和心理体验
remarkably this involves not only the five senses but also cognitive and mental experiences
比如模式识别 空间定位 甚至情感
such as pattern recognition spatial orientation or even emotions
有些种类的联觉
some forms of synesthesia involve more
同时涉及超过两种的感官或者体验
than two senses or experiences at a time
理论上 各种不同的感觉和知觉
in theory there can be as many types of synesthesia as there are possible
可以组成各种可能的联觉
combinations of sensory or perceptual experiences
不过有些种类的联觉比较常见
but some forms are much more common than others
比如字母——颜色联觉
these include grapheme-to-color synesthesia
指特定的字母和数字以特定的颜色呈现
where individual letters and numbers are seen with a specific color
声音——颜色联觉 也称连带色觉
sound-to-color or chromesthesia
指听到一个声音就会出现一个颜色
where sounds produce colors
而空间序列联觉
and spatial sequence synesthesia
是指一个序列的元素 比如一周中的几天
where elements of a sequence such as days in a week
会被联觉者排列在人体周围的空间中的特定部位
are assigned a specific location in a 3d arrangement around the person
不少联觉者会经历不止一种形式的联觉
it’s not uncommon for a person to experience more than one form
以前 人们以为联觉很罕见
once thought to be rare
但是据目前估计 联觉者其实很常见
synesthesia is now estimated to be very common
但是联觉者人数没法确定
the numbers are far from accurate however
可能是因为很多联觉者
perhaps because most synesthetes have their experiences
在他们小时候就经历过联觉
since a very young age
所以并没有意识到有什么不正常的
and do not realize that anything is unusual
直到长大后才发现
until much later in life
但此时 他们倾向保密
at which point many tend to keep it a secret
因为他们不是害怕与别人不同 就是怕被诊断出精神疾病
for fear of being different or diagnosed with mental illness.
今天 随着人们对联觉有了更深入的了解
with today’s better understanding of the phenomenon,
联觉者更有可能站出来分享他们的经历
synesthetes are more likely to come forward sharing their experience
虽然有的神经学家认为这是一种神经系统疾病
despite being referred to as aneurological condition by some neurologists
但是联觉不是一种疾病
synesthesia is not a disease
和认知或心理障碍也没有关系
it is not associated with cognitive or mental disabilities
事实上 联觉者在记忆测试中的表现 通常比一般人更好
in fact synesthetes generally perform better in memory tests than an average person
而且更有创造力
and tend to be more creative
这成了联觉者的内在优势
they have built-in capabilities that are to their advantage.
他们听到音符能看到颜色 使他们有完美的音高
seeing colors when hearing musical notes can help achieve perfect pitch
自动在空间中进行排序 有助于记忆的形成
automatically arranging items in spaceaids with memory
颜色编码的数字 帮助他们快速地辨别差异和模式
and having numbers color-coded can help quickly spot differences and patterns
很多联觉者把他们的这种经历看作天赋 而不是缺陷
most synesthetes perceive their experiences as a gift rather than a handicap
很多联觉者有潜力成为有创造力的艺术家
many tend to have inclination for creative artisticprofessions
真正的联觉总是自发的 无意识的 一致的
a true synesthetic experience is automatic involuntary andconsistent over time
这些联觉经历是联觉者感知世界的唯一方法
these experiences are the only way a synesthete perceives the world
无论何时 同一个声音或字母都会让同一个颜色出现
a sound or a letter always gives the same color every time without fail
就算听到他们从未听过的声音
and if they hear a new sound they never heard before
或者看到他们从未见过的字符
or see a new character they never seen before,
字符会自动被分配到对应的颜色
a color will be automatically assigned to it.
有些药物会产生类似联觉的效应
some drugs may produce synesthetic-like effects,
但那不是真正的联觉 因为这种联觉只是暂时性的
but these are not real synesthetic experience because they do not last.
联觉的倾向性似乎受到了基因的影响
genetic makeup seems to have a role in predisposition to synesthesia
因为联觉往往会世代相传
as it tends to run in family
不过每个家庭成员的联觉形式是不一样的
but family members can have different forms of synesthesia
人们对联觉的原理的了解很少
mechanism of synesthesia is still poorly understood
但有证据显示 感觉传导路径间的干扰
but there is evidence that the crosstalk between various sensory pathways
是造成联觉的原因
accounts for the experience.
比如 在大脑影像技术的帮助下
for example with the help of brain imaging techniques
当声音——颜色联觉者受到声音刺激时
the brain v4 region responsible for color recognition
我们会看到
can be seen activated
大脑中负责识别颜色的V4区域会被激活
when a sound-color synesthete is presented with auditory stimuli
在联觉者的大脑中 与联觉相关的部位的灰质似乎比常人多
synesthetes also seem to have more gray matter in the implicated brain areas
而且连接灰质的白质也更多
as well as more white matter connecting them
有一种理论认为 我们生来都是联觉者
there is a theory that we are all born synesthetic,
各种感官之间是存在连接的
with all the connections between senses
但是随着大脑的成熟 这些连接不见了
but lose them together with synesthetic ability
而联觉能力也随之不见了
as our brain matures,
但联觉者却保留了联觉
whilst synesthetes retain it.
这可能是很多成年人依然有一定程度的联觉的原因
this may explain why most people still have some degree of synesthesia as adults
你有没有联觉呢?
let’s see if you have it
这两个形状中 哪个名为“Kiki” 哪个名为“Bouba”呢?
which of these shapes is named “Kiki” and which “Bouba”?
(95%受访者的答案为:左边Kiki 右边Bouba)

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听到声音时你会想到颜色吗?来看看你是不是联觉者吧!

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