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什么是超现实主义?

What is Surrealism? Art Movements & Styles

Think Surrealism
提到超现实主义
and you may think of visual artists
你可能会想起一些视觉艺术家
like Salvador Dalí or
比如说萨尔瓦多·达利
Rene Magritte
雷尼•马格利特
but the movement actually began in literature
实际上 早在1924年 诗人安德烈布勒东
in 1924,through the poet André Breton.
就发起了这场文学领域的变革
Influenced by the writings of Sigmund Freud
受西格蒙德•弗洛伊德作品的影响
Surrealists saw the subconscious
超现实主义艺术家们
as the means of revolution
把潜意识作为变革的方式
and sought nothing less than to change the world.
并尽力追求改变这个世界
Surrealism rose from the ashes of Dada.
超现实主义是在达达主义的基础上兴起的
Like Dada, it was an avant-garde movement
和达达主义一样 超现实主义是一场
reacting against the corrupt, hypocritical society
反对腐败和虚伪社会的前卫运动
responsible for sending millions to their death in the First World War.
它导致了数以百万计的人在一战中死亡
Both sought to shock the establishment
两种派别都在试图冲击当权派
and shared a distrust of logic
并且传达着对逻辑的不信任
and a love of the absurd.
以及对荒诞的热爱
Surrealism was also influenced by the ideas of Symbolism.
超现实主义还受象征主义思想的影响
Symbolist artists such as Gustave Moreau
诸如居斯塔夫•莫罗等象征主义画家
were seen by Breton as precursors of the Surrealist movement.
被布勒东视为超现实主义变革中的先驱者
Surrealist artists sought to liberate
超现实主义艺术家们追求解放
the subconscious mind in their art.
他们作品中的潜意识思维
Some like Salvador Dalí did this through depiction of dreamlike images
比方说 萨尔瓦多·达利常用描述精妙的细节的方式
rendered in precise detail.
来表达梦幻般的图景
Other artists like Miró explored automatism
其他的艺术家 比如米罗 探求的是自动主义
the means of creating expressive images
即不运用理性思维
without engaging the rational mind.
创造富有表现力的画面的方法
If a technique celebrated the serendipitous or the random,
如果一种技术宣称有任何意外或偶然的艺术发现
then Surrealists embraced it.
超现实主义者们也欣然接受
Georges Hugnet used decalcomania to produce this work.
乔治•休奈特就用了贴花转印法 创造了这幅作品
Paper is painted, stuck together,
先在纸张上画好 然后叠在一起
then pulled apart to reveal
分开 印上图案
images that can be read or deciphered in many different ways.
这些图案可用很多不同方式解读或诠释
The element of chance
机遇的因素
was important to Surrealist artists.
对超现实主义艺术家来说很重要
Surrealism started in Paris
超现实主义始于巴黎
but quickly spread throughout the globe.
但是很快就在全球流传开
In 1936 the International Surrealist Exhibition
1936年的国际超现实主义展览会
was held in London.
就是在伦敦举办的
Breton and Dalí gave lectures there
布勒东和达利在那里演讲
Dalí in a deep-sea diver suit
达利穿着深海潜水服
from which he had to be rescued
大家发现他没法呼吸时
when it became clear he couldn’t breathe
才把他从潜水服里救出来
Surrealism thrived elsewhere in Europe too
超现实主义也在欧洲其他地方盛行
particularly Belgium and Czechoslovakia.
特别是在比利时和捷克
Toyen was a Czech Surrealist
托恩是一位捷克超现实主义艺术家
born Marie Cerminova.
出生在玛丽 圣米罗瓦
The name Toyen was adopted in early adulthood.
托恩在她刚成年时就为人所知
Toyen identified using the Czech language’s masculine form,
托恩决定使用男性化的捷克语
and dressed in men’s working clothes.
并且身穿男子工装
This exploration of gender has made Toyen a cult figure.
这种性别的探索使托恩成为了偶像人物
This work, The Message of the Forest
这件名为《森林之音》的作品
depicts a huge bluebird
描绘了一只巨大的蓝鸲
against a dark, mysterious wooded background.
它紧靠着一个昏暗又神秘的木制背景
It embodies a recurring theme in their work
这体现了他们作品中的一个常见主题
nature’s power over humanity.
自然之力胜于人类
This world is barren, dreamlike
这个世界贫瘠而虚妄
and inhabited by lone girls, fragmented female figures and birds,
孤独的女孩 碎片化的女性形象和鸟生活于此
it is bizarre even sinister,
它诡异甚或愤世
and its discussion of dreams and nightmares
而作品对好梦和噩梦意象的讨论
suggests intense anxiety.
显出非常强烈的焦虑感
As the Second World War ravaged Europe
当二战的战火蹂躏欧洲时
many surrealists fled across the Atlantic.
很多超现实主义家飞越大西洋
Some found a new spiritual home in Mexico
一些人在墨西哥找到新的精神家园
and others settled in America
另一些人则在美国安家
where they inspired a new generation of artists.
在这里他们鼓舞了新一代的艺术家
Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock
抽象表现主义艺术家 如杰克逊•波洛克
were inspired by the Surrealist approach to automatism
就是被超现实主义手法中的自动主义启示
and the idea that art should come from the unconscious mind.
进而思考出艺术应该来源于无意识
Other artists have found inspiration in dreamlike imagery
其他艺术家也在梦幻的图像
and the unexpected juxtapositions of Surrealism.
和出乎意料的超现实主义并置中受启发
The photographer Francesca Woodman
摄影师弗朗西斯科•伍德曼
was a keen student of Surrealism.
也是一个热衷于超现实主义的学生
In her photographs she included props with clear Surrealist associations like the mirror.
在她的摄影作品中 会把镜子之类的小道具 清晰地与超现实主义联系起来
But was the mirror a device of Surrealism?
但镜子象征着超现实主义吗?
Or was Surrealism the mirror,
或者说超现实主义本身就是镜子
one helping us see the world with fresh eyes?
能让我们用全新的视角看待世界?

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视频概述

超现实主义的发展历程

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Luka

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fH1uXlm9qoQ

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