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什么是鼻窦炎?

What is Sinusitis?

What is Sinusitis?
什么是鼻窦炎?
Before we can answer that Question,
回答这个问题之前
we should talk a little bit about Anatomy:
我们先来了解一下相关解剖学知识
Sinuses are hollow spaces in the bones around the nose
鼻窦是由鼻骨包绕形成的中空结构
that connect to the nose through small, narrow channels.
它是连通鼻腔的窄小腔体
Humans possess four paired paranasal sinuses.
人有四对鼻窦
Your cheekbones hold your maxillary sinuses (the largest).
颧骨支撑着的是上颌窦 (最大的一对)
The low-center of your forehead is where your frontal sinuses are located.
位于前额骨中下部的是额窦
Between your eyes are your ethmoid sinuses.
在两眼之间的是筛窦
In bones behind your nose are your sphenoid sinuses.
鼻骨后面的是蝶窦
They’re lined with soft, pink tissue called mucosa.
四对鼻窦里面都有柔软的粉红色黏膜组织
Sinusitis means your sinuses are inflamed.
鼻窦炎就是你的鼻窦发炎了
What Causes sinusitis?
为什么会得鼻窦炎呢?
98 percent of sinusitis occur due to viral infection,
98%的鼻窦炎由病毒感染引起
it can also be caused by bacterial infection.
也有一些由细菌感染引起
while small population can have it due to fungal disease.
但很少有人会因真菌感染而得鼻窦炎
There are some pre disposing factors that make it more likely that you get sinusitis
有些诱因可能使你更容易患鼻窦炎
including: Allergic rhinitis which makes it easier for infection to occur,
比如过敏性鼻炎者更容易得鼻窦炎
exposure to smoke or cigratte smoking,
还有暴露在二手烟环境下或者抽烟
anatomical abnormailities which make it difficult for sinuses to drain.
解剖结构异常也会导致鼻窦堵塞
The central event in sinusitis is blockage of the sinus openings,
鼻窦炎的主要问题是
or ostia as a result of inflammation.
炎症导致的鼻窦开口堵塞
Unable to circulate air and eliminate the secretions that are produced,
鼻腔空气不流通 分泌物无法排出
obstructed sinuses become an ideal environment for bacterial infection.
阻塞的鼻窦成为细菌滋生的理想环境
Types of Sinusitis?
鼻窦炎有哪些种类?
Types of sinusitis include:
鼻窦炎分为:
Acute Sinsusitis, which lasts up to 4 weeks
急性鼻窦炎 最长可持续4周
Subacute Sinsusitis, which lasts 4 to 12 weeks
亚急性鼻窦炎 一般持续4到12周
Chronic Sinsusitis, which lasts more than 12 weeks
慢性鼻窦炎会持续12周以上
and can continue for months or even years.
甚至几个月 几年都有
Recurrent Sinsusitis, with several attacks within a year.
复发性鼻窦炎 一年中会数次发作
What are the signs and Symptoms of sinusitis?
鼻窦炎有哪些体征和症状?
First thing that most people notice is going to be pain .
很多人最先感觉到的就是疼痛
The pain may be localized to the sinus involved
有可能是受累的鼻窦局部疼痛
or it can also cause generalized pain which may present as headache.
也可能引起更广泛部位的疼痛 比如说头痛
If you tap on the sinus involved with finger, it can produce tenderness.
如果你按压受累鼻窦周围 会产生压痛
Also since the mucosa is inflammed it will produce lots of mucus,
而且粘膜感染发炎 会导致分泌物增多
which is going to drain into the nasal cavity through sinus openings or ostia.
分泌物会通过窦口排到鼻腔
Once in the nasal cavity there is only 2 things it can do,
一旦进入鼻腔 分泌物只有两个去处
1st thing is to come out of your nose so people will notice Nasal discharge.
一是从鼻子排出 也就是流鼻涕
The 2nd thing it can do is go to back of your throat
二是倒流回喉咙
as the back of your nose is related to back of your throat
因为鼻后部和咽喉后部是相连的
and there it causes irritation and cause you to cough.
这会引起喉咙不适 继而咳嗽
Inflammation of mucosa can also alter the smell and taste of things.
粘膜发炎也会影响人的嗅觉和味觉
Patients can also have fever because of the infection and inflammation.
有些病人还会因为感染发炎而发烧
How can we diagnose sinusitis?
如何诊断鼻窦炎呢?
By and large the diagnosis of sinusitis is made by symptoms alone.
总体上 往往只靠症状就能诊断鼻窦炎
Common symptoms include: Nasal or post nasal drip,
常见症状包括:鼻腔或鼻后滴漏
sinus pain orpressure,
鼻窦疼痛或压痛
Nasal congestion, decreased ability to smell, cough, headache and fever.
鼻塞 嗅觉减退 咳嗽 头疼和发烧
But sometimes the symptoms aren’t clear cut,
有时候 如果症状不是特别明显
in that case there are some other tests that can be done to diagnose:
可以借助一些其他检查来诊断
sometimes a medical practitioner will take a look inside your nose
比如有时医生会检查患者鼻子内部
to get a better look at nasal or post nasal drip
以便看清鼻腔或鼻后滴漏
this is called ‘Rhinoscopy’.
也就是做鼻内窥镜
X rays can be done to visualize sinuses.
也可以通过X射线来检查鼻窦
The gold standard to diagnose is CT scan.
而诊断鼻窦炎的金标准当属鼻窦CT扫描
Other tests are only done if needed in special circumstances.
其它检查只有在特殊情况下才按需进行
How can we treat sinusitis?
鼻窦炎要如何治疗?
For Acute Viral sinusitis, The most common type of sinusitis,
对于最常见的急性病毒性鼻窦炎
there is not a lot we can do to actually treat the disease itself
针对疾病本身我们能做的并不多
but we can treat symptoms.
但可以缓解症状
One of the first drugs to treat symptoms is going to be Nasal decongestants.
最常使用的药物是解充血剂
These medications shrink swollen nasal passages,
它可以缓解鼻窦肿胀
facilitating the flow of drainage from the sinuses.
有利于脓涕排出鼻窦
We also give mucolytics medications which help clear mucus.
还可以使用粘液溶解剂来祛除粘液
We also ask the patient to remain Well Hydrated,
我们还会要求病人多喝水
as being well hydrated helps in drainage of mucus as mucus formed is not so sticky
这样可以降低分泌的粘液浓度
that it gets stuck in if your body is well hydrated.
以便更好排出
Finally, we also give pain killers to help relieve the pain.
最后 我们还会使用止疼药缓解疼痛
For Acute Bacterial sinusitis, we give all of the above
对于急性细菌性鼻窦炎 除上述治疗外
plus Antibiotics for 10-14 days.
我们还会给予10-14天抗生素治疗
For chronic Sinusitis: again all of the above
对于慢性鼻窦炎 除上述所有治疗外
but the antibiotics have to be given for a lot longer period,
还需更长时间的抗生素治疗
most people recommend 4-6 weeks of antibiotics.
大部分人需要4-6周抗生素治疗
If the sinusitis is too severe and the person is at risk of complications.
如果病人症状特别严重 且有并发症风险
We go for surgery.
我们建议手术治疗
surgery may be done to remove small amounts of bone
手术会切除小部分鼻骨
or other material blocking the sinus openings
或其他堵塞窦口的组织
or to remove growths blocking sinuses Also called as polyps.
又或者切除阻塞鼻窦的鼻息肉
Normally, a thin, lighted tool called an endoscope is inserted through the nose
通常 一根又细又轻的鼻内窥镜被插入鼻孔
so the doctor can see and remove whatever is blocking the sinuses.
以便医生检查并切除一切阻塞鼻窦的组织

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视频概述

本视频介绍了鼻窦炎的病因、症状以及治疗方法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhHUEg0hJkI

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