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为什么很多中国菜谱都用到了绍兴酒 – 译学馆
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为什么很多中国菜谱都用到了绍兴酒

What is Shaoxing Wine, and why's it in almost every Chinese recipe?

If you’ve done any Chinese cooking,
如果你曾做过中国菜
you’ve probably heard of Shaoxing wine.
你也许听到过绍兴酒
So let’s get something out of the way first.
所以让我们先拿出一些东西
This is a bottle of proper Shaoxing wine that we picked up in Shaoxing,
这是我们从绍兴买来的一瓶正宗绍兴酒
which’s a small city in the Zhejiang province outside of Hangzhou.
绍兴是浙江省的一个小城市 位于杭州城外
It’s basically the Chinese equivalent of Burgundy –
绍兴酒基本上相当于中国的白兰地
delicious to drink, delicious to cook with.
很好喝 用来做菜也很美味
This, meanwhile, is Liaojiu-Chinese cooking wine.
同时 这是料酒 中国做菜用的酒
For the most part,
大多数情况下
if you’ve been buying stuff labeled ‘ Shaoxing wine’ in English in the West,
如果你在西方买了用英文标注“绍兴酒”的东西
this is what you’re actually buying.
你实际上买到的东西会是这种料酒
While it is roughly based of actual Shaoxing wine,
虽然它基本上是以绍兴酒为原料
it’s salted, spiced, and while usually totally fine to cook with.
它是加盐的 加香辛料的 通常用它煮饭会很好吃
It is decidedly not for drinking.
这酒绝对不是用来喝的
So in our recipe videos,
所以在我们的烹饪视频里
I know that we should probably just call Liaojiu Shaoxing,
我知道我们也许应该称它为绍兴料酒
because that’s what everyone else seems to do in English.
因为在英语中 其他人好象都这样说
But we stubbornly make the distinction,
但我们固执地去区分两者
because Shaoxing is a city that’s proud of its alcohol.
因为绍兴是一个因酒而自豪的城市
The culture there runs deep.
那里的文化源远流长
Wandering around the city you’ll find that
徜徉在城中 你会发现
going out to eat there is often as conjoined with wine drinking
在那里外出就餐经常与喝酒联系在一起
as something like Spanish tapas might be.
就象西班牙餐前小吃一样
The city is the epicenter of the rice wine that bears its name.
这座城市是以其名字命名的米酒的中心
It’s a much beloved drink there,
在那里 米酒是很受欢迎的饮品
and you can trace its popularity all the way back to the Song dynasty.
它的流行可以一直追溯到宋朝
So then, what is Shaoxing wine?
那么 绍兴酒是什么呢
History and Varieties
历史及种类
Shaoxing wine is a sub-category of Huangjiu rice wine.
绍兴酒是黄酒(米酒)的一个子类
Compared to clear rice wines like Chinese Mijiu or Japanese sake,
与中国米酒或日本清酒等清米酒相比
Huangjiu’s generally a bit sweeter
黄酒一般更甜一点儿
and made using a mix of wheat and barley Koji rather than purely rice Koji.
用小麦曲和大麦曲混合制成 而不是用纯大米曲
Shaoxing wine, meanwhile, can really refer four different types of Huangjiu
绍兴酒实际上可以同时指四种不同的黄酒
that all originated from that area.
这些酒都发源于那个地区
First sort is Yuanhongjiu,
第一类是元红酒
which’s dry, and generally the cheapest, most basic form of Shaoxing wine.
这是一种干酒 通常是最便宜 最基本的绍兴酒
Second is Jiafanjiu, semi-dry,
第二种是加饭酒 半干
which uses Yuanhongjiu as part of its base, adds more rice,
它以元红酒为基础 加了更多米
and has a slightly higher sugar content.
并且含糖量稍高一点儿
The third kind is Shanniangjiu, semi-sweet,
第三种是善酿酒 半甜
which uses aged Jiafanjiu as a base;
它以陈年加饭酒作为基酒
and finally Xiangxuejiu, which’s the sweetest of the four.
最后是香雪酒 四种酒中最甜的酒
While these last two are sometimes called for in old school Imperial cuisine,
虽然后两种酒有时在旧式的皇家菜肴中佐餐
what really interests us as cooks is the second one, Jiafanjiu.
作为厨师 真正让我们感兴趣的是第二种加饭酒
This specific kind of wine became popular to cook with and drink with in Zhejiang cuisine.
这种酒在浙菜中烧菜及佐餐都很受欢迎
In a restaurant in ShaoXing,
在绍兴的一家餐馆
it’s generally this Jifanjiu that they’ve got on the table
他们放在餐桌及做饭的炒锅边上的
and next to their wok for cooking.
通常都是这种加饭酒
Now just like how Parma became known for Ham
就像帕尔马如何因火腿而闻名
and San Marzano for Tomatoes,
以及圣马尔扎诺如何因西红柿而闻名一样
chefs tend to seek out the places that make the best stuff.
厨师们往往喜欢寻找出产最佳食材的地方
The whole region around Hangzhou was historically renowned for rice production,
杭州周围的整个地区历史上因盛产大米而闻名
and Shaoxing’s position along the old grand canal
以及绍兴比邻大运河的位置
allowed this specific rice wine -the Jiafanjiu- to spread.
让这种特殊的米酒——加饭酒——传播开来
Culminating in the old saying “ Yuejiu xing Tianxia ”,
随着一句俗语“越酒行太下” 绍兴酒达到鼎盛
Shaoxing wine reaches everywhere under heaven.
行销至天南海北
Expensive aged varieties would get packed in specific jars for shipping,
名贵的陈年老酒会被装进特定的坛子里运输
and called “ Huadiao ”,
并被称做“花雕”
the name referring the artful engravings on the jugs.
这名字是指坛子上的艺术雕刻
Nowadays though, basically any kind of Shaoxing-style Jiafanjiu
然而现在 基本上任何一种绍兴风格的加饭酒
is referred to in China as Huadiao, and abroad as Shaoxing.
在中国都被称叫花雕酒 在国外则称作绍兴酒
Among cooking wines in China,
在中国的烹饪用酒中
it’s generally the nicer sort
它通常是较好的那种
and what we’ve grown to usually use.
并且我们已习惯用它
Liaojiu, meanwhile, ferments huangjiu for only twenty days or so,
同时 料酒只将黄酒发酵20天左右
then adds ethanol, and of course a whole bunch of salt.
然后加入酒精 当然还有一大堆盐
And while that might sound damning,
尽管这听起来可能很糟糕
it honestly usually works just fine.
老实说 它通常效果还不差
And, you know, you can’t argue with the price.
你懂的 你不能违背价格规律
But regardless which wine you choose,
但无论你选用哪种酒
why do they seem to be used so often?
为什么这些酒这么频繁地被用到呢
Uses When Cooking
做饭时使用
So right, use number one – balancing funk.
所以 使用方法一 去除异味
See, there’s three categories of ‘unpleasant odors’ in Chinese cooking:
比如 在中餐烹饪中 有三种讨厌的味道:
shanwei, which’s sort of like gaminess;
膻味 有点象肉腐败的臭味
xingwei, or fishiness;
腥味或鱼腥味
and saowei, which’s the poultry equivalent.
还有骚味 相当于家禽的味道
Unlike in English though
尽管不象在英语里那样
where ‘gamey’ is thought of as kind of a binary thing,
“膻味”被认为是有两种状态的事情
‘ Shanwei ’ can encompass things that’re very shan like mutton
膻味可包含从非常膻的东西 比如羊肉
to things that’re a little shan like pork.
到有点儿膻的东西 比如猪肉
Ditto with the other flavors,
其他口味也是一样
fish that’ve been caught and killed via suffocation can get pretty fishy,
被捕获 窒息而死的鱼会变得很有鱼腥味
but in China, an egg is also sometimes conceptualized as a little fishy.
但在中国 鸡蛋有时也被认为有点鱼腥味
So Chinese cooking’s often a game
所以中国烹饪通常是一种
of counteracting and balancing those flavors.
抵消 平衡这些味道的游戏
And for whatever reason,
不管什么原因
this kind of wine seems to do a really good job with funk in general.
总的来说 这种酒似乎对臭味很有效
Ever wonder how some people can enjoy straight up unfried stinky tofu?
有没有想过 有些人怎么能直接享用未经油炸的臭豆腐?
Try chasing that stinky tofu with a good Shaoxing wine.
试着在臭豆腐后喝一口上好的绍兴酒
I don’t know why, but the flavors really really work together.
我不知道为什么 但是味道真的很搭配
So that’s why you’ll see Shaoxing wine so much in Chinese marinades.
这就是为什么绍兴酒在中国腌渍中会很常见
It’s less for texture, and more for taste.
不是为了口感 而更是为了味道
So while any of these Huangjiu rice wines are often preferred,
因此 虽然这些黄酒通常都是首选
you can swap for Mijiu rice wine, a japanese sake, a cheap bourbon
你可以用米酒 日本清酒和便宜的波旁威士忌
some dry white wine, just use your own judgment.
某些干白来代替 根据自己的判断来就好
Use number two: for use while stir-frying.
使用方法二: 炒菜时使用
See, a huge misconception about stir-frying is
比如 关于炒菜很大的一个误解是
that it should just be max flame, all the time.
应该一直用最旺的火
Like in all cuisines, heat control is fundamental to Chinese cooking.
和所有菜系一样 火候控制是中式烹饪的基础
And there’s three ways to control the heat in a wok:
有三种方法可以控制锅里的温度
first, obviously controlling the strength of the flame itself;
首先 很明显 控制火焰本身的强度
second, controlling the distance the wok is from the flame,
其次 控制锅与火焰间的距离
and third, by adding more stuff to the wok, which lowers the temperature.
第三 向锅里填加更多东西 可以降低温度
So a common move is to take some wine,
所以 一个常见的办法是取些酒
pour it over a spatula and around the sides of the wok,
倒到锅铲上 沿锅边淋入锅内
to let it sizzle and basically immediately reduce away.
让它发出嘶嘶声 基本上马上挥发掉
This lowers the temperature,
这使温度下降
so often we like to swirl it in right after we’re done frying the aromatics.
通常我们喜欢在炒完香辛料之后立即把酒淋入
This wine’s used because it adds a nice subtle fragrance,
用这种酒是因为它会增加一种很好的淡淡的香味
but honestly, any liquid would do the job.
但老实说 任何液体都可以做到
Use number three: preserved or drunken dishes.
使用方法三: 腌制或醉菜
For this use, we generally recommend you use a nicer sort
为此 我们通常建议您使用更好的那种酒
and skip the liaojiu,
不要用料酒
because the flavor of the wine itself’s more fundamental to the dish.
因为酒本身的味道对这道菜来说更重要
A good example’s drunken chicken, Zuiji,
醉鸡是个很好的例子
where poached chicken sits in a Shaoxing wine-based brine
水煮鸡泡在绍兴酒为基底的卤水里
for at least overnight but even up to a week.
至少一整夜 甚至长达一周
You’ll see it too in stuff like Cantonese lushui master stocks,
你也会在广东卤水大师贮存的食物中见到酒
where the alcohol lends a nice flavor but also helps everything keep.
在食物里 酒精提供了好味道 且利于食物贮存
So if you’re abroad,
所以 如果你在国外
for these dishes try to find something that says it’s Huadiao,
要做这样的菜 尽量找到标注花雕的酒
though you’ll probably need to settle for something salted
不过你可能要去腌制区找找
because of stupid American alcohol laws.
因为愚蠢的美国酒类法
So Shaooxing is a great charming little town
所以绍兴是一个非常迷人的小镇
although a little bit on the touristy side
虽然貌似是从适宜旅游的角度讲的
but the food is great, the wine is great,
但那里的食物很棒 酒很棒
so if you ever find yourself in Shanghai area,
所以如果你发现自己在上海
definitely check it out.
一定要去看看
So check out the Reddit link in the description box for a detailed discussion,
所以请查看描述框中Reddit链接以获得详细讨论
or you can check out our Instagram for some travel pictures,
或者你可以在我们的Instagram上看旅行照片
and as always,
和往常一样
a big thank you for everyone that support us on Patreon.
非常感谢所有在Patreon上支持我们的人
And of course subscribe for more Chinese cooking videos.
当然 请订阅更多的中国烹饪视频

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视频概述

行销天南海北的绍兴酒有着怎样的历史呢? 它又包含了哪些类别呢?不同类别的绍兴酒都有什么作用呢? 点击该视频,为你解读越酒行天下的原因。

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视频来源

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