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为什么很多中国菜谱都用到了绍兴酒 – 译学馆
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为什么很多中国菜谱都用到了绍兴酒

What is Shaoxing Wine, and why's it in almost every Chinese recipe?

如果你曾做过中国菜
If you’ve done any Chinese cooking,
你也许听到过绍兴酒
you’ve probably heard of Shaoxing wine.
所以让我们先拿出一些东西
So let’s get something out of the way first.
这是我们从绍兴买来的一瓶正宗绍兴酒
This is a bottle of proper Shaoxing wine that we picked up in Shaoxing,
绍兴是浙江省的一个小城市 位于杭州城外
which’s a small city in the Zhejiang province outside of Hangzhou.
绍兴酒基本上相当于中国的白兰地
It’s basically the Chinese equivalent of Burgundy –
很好喝 用来做菜也很美味
delicious to drink, delicious to cook with.
同时 这是料酒 中国做菜用的酒
This, meanwhile, is Liaojiu-Chinese cooking wine.
大多数情况下
For the most part,
如果你在西方买了用英文标注“绍兴酒”的东西
if you’ve been buying stuff labeled ‘ Shaoxing wine’ in English in the West,
你实际上买到的东西会是这种料酒
this is what you’re actually buying.
虽然它基本上是以绍兴酒为原料
While it is roughly based of actual Shaoxing wine,
它是加盐的 加香辛料的 通常用它煮饭会很好吃
it’s salted, spiced, and while usually totally fine to cook with.
这酒绝对不是用来喝的
It is decidedly not for drinking.
所以在我们的烹饪视频里
So in our recipe videos,
我知道我们也许应该称它为绍兴料酒
I know that we should probably just call Liaojiu Shaoxing,
因为在英语中 其他人好象都这样说
because that’s what everyone else seems to do in English.
但我们固执地去区分两者
But we stubbornly make the distinction,
因为绍兴是一个因酒而自豪的城市
because Shaoxing is a city that’s proud of its alcohol.
那里的文化源远流长
The culture there runs deep.
徜徉在城中 你会发现
Wandering around the city you’ll find that
在那里外出就餐经常与喝酒联系在一起
going out to eat there is often as conjoined with wine drinking
就象西班牙餐前小吃一样
as something like Spanish tapas might be.
这座城市是以其名字命名的米酒的中心
The city is the epicenter of the rice wine that bears its name.
在那里 米酒是很受欢迎的饮品
It’s a much beloved drink there,
它的流行可以一直追溯到宋朝
and you can trace its popularity all the way back to the Song dynasty.
那么 绍兴酒是什么呢
So then, what is Shaoxing wine?
历史及种类
History and Varieties
绍兴酒是黄酒(米酒)的一个子类
Shaoxing wine is a sub-category of Huangjiu rice wine.
与中国米酒或日本清酒等清米酒相比
Compared to clear rice wines like Chinese Mijiu or Japanese sake,
黄酒一般更甜一点儿
Huangjiu’s generally a bit sweeter
用小麦曲和大麦曲混合制成 而不是用纯大米曲
and made using a mix of wheat and barley Koji rather than purely rice Koji.
绍兴酒实际上可以同时指四种不同的黄酒
Shaoxing wine, meanwhile, can really refer four different types of Huangjiu
这些酒都发源于那个地区
that all originated from that area.
第一类是元红酒
First sort is Yuanhongjiu,
这是一种干酒 通常是最便宜 最基本的绍兴酒
which’s dry, and generally the cheapest, most basic form of Shaoxing wine.
第二种是加饭酒 半干
Second is Jiafanjiu, semi-dry,
它以元红酒为基础 加了更多米
which uses Yuanhongjiu as part of its base, adds more rice,
并且含糖量稍高一点儿
and has a slightly higher sugar content.
第三种是善酿酒 半甜
The third kind is Shanniangjiu, semi-sweet,
它以陈年加饭酒作为基酒
which uses aged Jiafanjiu as a base;
最后是香雪酒 四种酒中最甜的酒
and finally Xiangxuejiu, which’s the sweetest of the four.
虽然后两种酒有时在旧式的皇家菜肴中佐餐
While these last two are sometimes called for in old school Imperial cuisine,
作为厨师 真正让我们感兴趣的是第二种加饭酒
what really interests us as cooks is the second one, Jiafanjiu.
这种酒在浙菜中烧菜及佐餐都很受欢迎
This specific kind of wine became popular to cook with and drink with in Zhejiang cuisine.
在绍兴的一家餐馆
In a restaurant in ShaoXing,
他们放在餐桌及做饭的炒锅边上的
it’s generally this Jifanjiu that they’ve got on the table
通常都是这种加饭酒
and next to their wok for cooking.
就像帕尔马如何因火腿而闻名
Now just like how Parma became known for Ham
以及圣马尔扎诺如何因西红柿而闻名一样
and San Marzano for Tomatoes,
厨师们往往喜欢寻找出产最佳食材的地方
chefs tend to seek out the places that make the best stuff.
杭州周围的整个地区历史上因盛产大米而闻名
The whole region around Hangzhou was historically renowned for rice production,
以及绍兴比邻大运河的位置
and Shaoxing’s position along the old grand canal
让这种特殊的米酒——加饭酒——传播开来
allowed this specific rice wine -the Jiafanjiu- to spread.
随着一句俗语“越酒行太下” 绍兴酒达到鼎盛
Culminating in the old saying “ Yuejiu xing Tianxia ”,
行销至天南海北
Shaoxing wine reaches everywhere under heaven.
名贵的陈年老酒会被装进特定的坛子里运输
Expensive aged varieties would get packed in specific jars for shipping,
并被称做“花雕”
and called “ Huadiao ”,
这名字是指坛子上的艺术雕刻
the name referring the artful engravings on the jugs.
然而现在 基本上任何一种绍兴风格的加饭酒
Nowadays though, basically any kind of Shaoxing-style Jiafanjiu
在中国都被称叫花雕酒 在国外则称作绍兴酒
is referred to in China as Huadiao, and abroad as Shaoxing.
在中国的烹饪用酒中
Among cooking wines in China,
它通常是较好的那种
it’s generally the nicer sort
并且我们已习惯用它
and what we’ve grown to usually use.
同时 料酒只将黄酒发酵20天左右
Liaojiu, meanwhile, ferments huangjiu for only twenty days or so,
然后加入酒精 当然还有一大堆盐
then adds ethanol, and of course a whole bunch of salt.
尽管这听起来可能很糟糕
And while that might sound damning,
老实说 它通常效果还不差
it honestly usually works just fine.
你懂的 你不能违背价格规律
And, you know, you can’t argue with the price.
但无论你选用哪种酒
But regardless which wine you choose,
为什么这些酒这么频繁地被用到呢
why do they seem to be used so often?
做饭时使用
Uses When Cooking
所以 使用方法一 去除异味
So right, use number one – balancing funk.
比如 在中餐烹饪中 有三种讨厌的味道:
See, there’s three categories of ‘unpleasant odors’ in Chinese cooking:
膻味 有点象肉腐败的臭味
shanwei, which’s sort of like gaminess;
腥味或鱼腥味
xingwei, or fishiness;
还有骚味 相当于家禽的味道
and saowei, which’s the poultry equivalent.
尽管不象在英语里那样
Unlike in English though
“膻味”被认为是有两种状态的事情
where ‘gamey’ is thought of as kind of a binary thing,
膻味可包含从非常膻的东西 比如羊肉
‘ Shanwei ’ can encompass things that’re very shan like mutton
到有点儿膻的东西 比如猪肉
to things that’re a little shan like pork.
其他口味也是一样
Ditto with the other flavors,
被捕获 窒息而死的鱼会变得很有鱼腥味
fish that’ve been caught and killed via suffocation can get pretty fishy,
但在中国 鸡蛋有时也被认为有点鱼腥味
but in China, an egg is also sometimes conceptualized as a little fishy.
所以中国烹饪通常是一种
So Chinese cooking’s often a game
抵消 平衡这些味道的游戏
of counteracting and balancing those flavors.
不管什么原因
And for whatever reason,
总的来说 这种酒似乎对臭味很有效
this kind of wine seems to do a really good job with funk in general.
有没有想过 有些人怎么能直接享用未经油炸的臭豆腐?
Ever wonder how some people can enjoy straight up unfried stinky tofu?
试着在臭豆腐后喝一口上好的绍兴酒
Try chasing that stinky tofu with a good Shaoxing wine.
我不知道为什么 但是味道真的很搭配
I don’t know why, but the flavors really really work together.
这就是为什么绍兴酒在中国腌渍中会很常见
So that’s why you’ll see Shaoxing wine so much in Chinese marinades.
不是为了口感 而更是为了味道
It’s less for texture, and more for taste.
因此 虽然这些黄酒通常都是首选
So while any of these Huangjiu rice wines are often preferred,
你可以用米酒 日本清酒和便宜的波旁威士忌
you can swap for Mijiu rice wine, a japanese sake, a cheap bourbon
某些干白来代替 根据自己的判断来就好
some dry white wine, just use your own judgment.
使用方法二: 炒菜时使用
Use number two: for use while stir-frying.
比如 关于炒菜很大的一个误解是
See, a huge misconception about stir-frying is
应该一直用最旺的火
that it should just be max flame, all the time.
和所有菜系一样 火候控制是中式烹饪的基础
Like in all cuisines, heat control is fundamental to Chinese cooking.
有三种方法可以控制锅里的温度
And there’s three ways to control the heat in a wok:
首先 很明显 控制火焰本身的强度
first, obviously controlling the strength of the flame itself;
其次 控制锅与火焰间的距离
second, controlling the distance the wok is from the flame,
第三 向锅里填加更多东西 可以降低温度
and third, by adding more stuff to the wok, which lowers the temperature.
所以 一个常见的办法是取些酒
So a common move is to take some wine,
倒到锅铲上 沿锅边淋入锅内
pour it over a spatula and around the sides of the wok,
让它发出嘶嘶声 基本上马上挥发掉
to let it sizzle and basically immediately reduce away.
这使温度下降
This lowers the temperature,
通常我们喜欢在炒完香辛料之后立即把酒淋入
so often we like to swirl it in right after we’re done frying the aromatics.
用这种酒是因为它会增加一种很好的淡淡的香味
This wine’s used because it adds a nice subtle fragrance,
但老实说 任何液体都可以做到
but honestly, any liquid would do the job.
使用方法三: 腌制或醉菜
Use number three: preserved or drunken dishes.
为此 我们通常建议您使用更好的那种酒
For this use, we generally recommend you use a nicer sort
不要用料酒
and skip the liaojiu,
因为酒本身的味道对这道菜来说更重要
because the flavor of the wine itself’s more fundamental to the dish.
醉鸡是个很好的例子
A good example’s drunken chicken, Zuiji,
水煮鸡泡在绍兴酒为基底的卤水里
where poached chicken sits in a Shaoxing wine-based brine
至少一整夜 甚至长达一周
for at least overnight but even up to a week.
你也会在广东卤水大师贮存的食物中见到酒
You’ll see it too in stuff like Cantonese lushui master stocks,
在食物里 酒精提供了好味道 且利于食物贮存
where the alcohol lends a nice flavor but also helps everything keep.
所以 如果你在国外
So if you’re abroad,
要做这样的菜 尽量找到标注花雕的酒
for these dishes try to find something that says it’s Huadiao,
不过你可能要去腌制区找找
though you’ll probably need to settle for something salted
因为愚蠢的美国酒类法
because of stupid American alcohol laws.
所以绍兴是一个非常迷人的小镇
So Shaooxing is a great charming little town
虽然貌似是从适宜旅游的角度讲的
although a little bit on the touristy side
但那里的食物很棒 酒很棒
but the food is great, the wine is great,
所以如果你发现自己在上海
so if you ever find yourself in Shanghai area,
一定要去看看
definitely check it out.
所以请查看描述框中Reddit链接以获得详细讨论
So check out the Reddit link in the description box for a detailed discussion,
或者你可以在我们的Instagram上看旅行照片
or you can check out our Instagram for some travel pictures,
和往常一样
and as always,
非常感谢所有在Patreon上支持我们的人
a big thank you for everyone that support us on Patreon.
当然 请订阅更多的中国烹饪视频
And of course subscribe for more Chinese cooking videos.

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视频概述

行销天南海北的绍兴酒有着怎样的历史呢? 它又包含了哪些类别呢?不同类别的绍兴酒都有什么作用呢? 点击该视频,为你解读越酒行天下的原因。

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视频来源

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