ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

什么是精神分裂症 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

什么是精神分裂症

What is schizophrenia? - Anees Bahji

“我的好运并不在于精神疾病的康复 而在于找到了自己的生活”
Schizophrenia was first identified more than a century ago,
一个多世纪以前 人们首次发现了精神分裂症
but we still don’t know its exact causes.
但其确切病因至今仍未可知
It remains one of the most misunderstood and stigmatized illnesses today.
直到今天 它依然是备受误解和非议的疾病之一
So, let’s walk through what we do know
那么 我们来聊聊已知的部分
— from symptoms to causes and treatments.
从症状到成因和治疗手段
Schizophrenia is considered a syndrome,
精神分裂症被认为是一种综合症
which means it may encompass a number of related disorders
这也意味着 它可能包含许多相关疾病
that have similar symptoms but varying causes.
虽然症状相似 病因却不尽相同
Every person with schizophrenia has slightly different symptoms,
患有精神分裂症的患者 症状都略有不同
and the first signs can be easy to miss
而最初的迹象很容易被忽视
— subtle personality changes, irritability,
即微妙的人格变化 易怒
or a gradual encroachment of unusual thoughts.
或被不寻常的思维逐渐蚕食
Patients are usually diagnosed after the onset of psychosis,
患者通常在精神病发作后被确诊
which typically occurs in the late teens or early twenties for men
男性的发病年龄通常在十八九岁或二十出头
and the late twenties or early thirties for women.
而女性则在二十八九岁或三十出头
A first psychotic episode can feature delusions, hallucinations,
第一次精神病发作时会出现妄想 幻觉
and disordered speech and behavior.
以及语言和行为上的紊乱
These are called positive symptoms,
这些被称为阳性症状
meaning they occur in people with schizophrenia
表示精神分裂症患者会出现这些症状
but not in the general population.
而普通人群则不会
It’s a common misperception
一种常见的误解是
that people with schizophrenia have multiple personalities,
认为精神分裂症患者拥有多重人格
but these symptoms indicate a disruption of thought processes,
但是这些症状表明了思维过程的中断
rather than the manifestation of another personality.
而非另一重人格的表现
Schizophrenia also has negative symptoms,
精神分裂症也有阴性症状
these are qualities that are reduced in people with schizophrenia,
这类的精神分裂症患者会在某些特性上出现衰退
such as motivation, expression of emotion, or speech.
比如积极性 情绪表达或语言能力
There are cognitive symptoms as well, like difficulty concentrating,
同时 还会出现一些认知症状 比如难以集中注意力
remembering information, and making decisions.
难以记住信息和难以作出决定
So what causes the onset of psychosis?
所以 是什么导致了精神病发作呢?
There likely isn’t one single cause, but a combination
很可能并不是单一原因造成的
of genetic and environmental risk factors that contribute.
而是由基因及环境危险因素结合造成的
Schizophrenia has some of the strongest genetic links of any psychiatric illness.
在所有精神疾病中 精神分裂症和基因联系最为紧密
Though about 1% of people have schizophrenia,
虽然只有1%的人患有精神分裂症
children or siblings of people with schizophrenia
但该症患者的孩子或兄弟姐妹
are ten times likelier to develop the disease,
患上这种病的机率比一般人高出十倍
and an identical twin of someone with schizophrenia
而精神分裂症患者的同卵双胞胎
has a 40% chance of being affected.
患病几率高达40%
Often, immediate relatives of people with schizophrenia
通常 精神分裂症患者的直系亲属
exhibit milder versions of traits associated with the disorder—
表现出的症状比该病的相关症状要温和一些
but not to an extent that requires treatment.
但还没有达到需要治疗的地步
Multiple genes almost certainly play a role,
几乎可以肯定 多基因在其中发挥了作用
but we don’t know how many, or which ones.
但具体多少基因或哪些基因 我们还不得而知
Environmental factors like exposure to certain viruses in early infancy
某些环境因素 比如在婴儿早期接触到某些病毒
might increase the chance that someone will develop schizophrenia,
可能会增加患上精神分裂症的几率
and use of some drugs, including marijuana,
而使用某些药物 包括大麻
may trigger the onset of psychosis
可能会在高度易感人群中
in highly susceptible individuals.
引发精神病
These factors don’t affect everyone the same way.
这些因素不会以同样的方式影响每个人
For those with very low genetic risk,
对于那些遗传风险极低的人来说
no amount of exposure to environmental risk factors
即使暴露在任何环境危险因素下
will lead them to develop schizophrenia;
也不会导致他们患上精神分裂症
for those with very high risk,
而对于遗传风险很高的人来说
moderate additional risk might tip the balance.
中度的额外风险就可能打破平衡
The antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia have helped researchers
用于治疗精神分裂症的抗精神病药帮助研究人员
work backwards to trace signatures of the disorder in the brain.
回溯去追踪大脑中的紊乱特征
Traditional antipsychotics block dopamine receptors.
传统的抗精神病药会阻断多巴胺受体
They can be very effective in reducing positive symptoms,
这对于减少阳性症状非常有效
which are linked to an excess of dopamine in particular brain pathways.
而这些症状与特定大脑通路中的多巴胺过多有关
But the same drugs can make negative symptoms worse,
但同样的药物会使阴性症状恶化
and we’ve found that negative symptoms of schizophrenia may be tied
而且我们发现 精神分裂症的阴性症状
to too little dopamine in other brain areas.
与大脑其他区域的多巴胺含量过低有关
Some people with schizophrenia show a loss of neural tissue,
某些精神分裂症患者出现了神经组织缺失的现象
and it’s unclear whether this atrophy is a result of the disease itself
而仍无法确定的是 这种萎缩是疾病本身的结果
or drug-induced suppression of signaling.
还是药物引致的传递信号抑制
Fortunately, newer generations of antipsychotics aim to address
幸运的是 新一代的抗精神病药旨在通过
some of these issues by targeting multiple neurotransmitters,
靶向作用于多种神经递质来解决某些问题
like serotonin in addition to dopamine.
比如血清素还有多巴胺
It’s clear that no one transmitter system is responsible for all symptoms,
很显然 所有症状不会只由单个递质系统引起
and because these drugs affect signaling throughout the brain and body,
而因为这些药物会影响遍及大脑和身体的信号传递
they can have other side effects like weight gain.
它们也会造成比如体重增加等其他副作用
In spite of these complications, antipsychotics can be very effective,
除了这些并发症 抗精神病药是非常有效的
especially when combined with other interventions
尤其是联合其他干预措施一起治疗
like cognitive-behavioral therapy.
比如认知行为疗法
Electroconvulsive therapy, though it provides relatively short-lived relief,
电休克疗法 虽然只能提供相对短暂的缓解
is also re-emerging as an effective treatment,
也作为一项有效的治疗手段重新投入使用
especially when other options have failed.
尤其当其他治疗手段失败时
Early intervention is also extremely important.
早期的干预措施也尤为重要
After months or years of untreated psychosis,
经年累月未经治疗的精神错乱
certain psychoses can become embedded in someone’s personality.
其中某些症状将会融入某人的人格中
And yet, the dehumanizing stigma attached to this diagnosis
然而 该疾病所背负的非人道污名
can prevent people from seeking help.
也会阻止人们寻求帮助
People with schizophrenia are often perceived as dangerous,
精神分裂症患者常被视为危险人物
but are actually much more likely to be the victims of violence
但实际上 他们更像是暴力的受害者
than the perpetrators.
而非施暴者
And proper treatment may help
适当的治疗将有助于
reduce the likelihood of violence associated with schizophrenia.
减少精神分裂症引起暴力的可能性
That’s why education— for patients, their families, and their communities—
因此 对于病人 他们的家人和周围的社区都需要进行教育
helps erode the stigma and improves access to treatment.
来帮助减轻此病的污名 增加获得治疗的机会
Continue to educate yourself about the symptoms, causes and treatments
您可以通过这个播放列表 继续了解不同精神疾病方面的
of different mental health conditions with this playlist.
症状 成因以及治疗手段

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

精神分裂症的症状、成因和治疗手段

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lauraaaaaa

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2sc_ck5BZU

相关推荐