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美国民粹主义的历史 – 译学馆
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美国民粹主义的历史

What Is Populism? | History

What do all these people have in common?
这些人有什么共同点?
They’ve all been called populists.
他们都被称为民粹主义者
But is that an insult or a compliment?
但那是一种侮辱还是赞誉?
And is it even accurate?
这个说法准确吗?
It’s hard to tell.
很难说
The term is defined
民粹主义者被定义为
as a member of a political party claiming to represent the common people.
宣称代表普通民众的政党成员
but populism isn’t as easy to understand as some other isms.
但民粹主义并不像其他主义那样容易理解
Why?
为什么?
To answer that,
要回答这个问题
we need to go back to the origin of the term,
我们需要回到这个术语的起源
late in the 19th century.
十九世纪晚期
The decades following the Civil War
南北战争后的几十年间
were a time of massive growth in America.
美国迅速发展
From 1860 to 1890,
从1860到1890
the American population nearly doubled.
美国人口几乎翻了一倍
Production of steel and coal exploded,
钢铁和煤的产量剧增
all while the US Army battled Native Americans
而同期的美国军队在与原住民作战
in a bid to carve out more and more land for railroads and farmers
试图为铁路和农民开辟出更多的土地
as the country expanded ever westward.
以支持西进开发
With over 62 million American mouths to feed,
超过6200万美国人口需要供给
farming looked like a lucrative field.
农业看上去有利可图
Technological advancement made it even easier to grow and harvest crops,
技术进步也使种植和收获更加容易
if you could afford to invest in the technology.
如果你付得起技术投资费用的话
But many farmers couldn’t, not on their own.
但很多农民无法独立承担费用
So they took out hefty loans from eastern banks,
所以他们向东方银行借巨额资金
believing that the high demand for food
相信对粮食的高需求
would allow them to pay off their debt in a short time.
可以让他们在短时间内还清贷款
But then crop prices fell and drought hit,
但随后农作物价格下跌加上旱灾
and the privately-owned railroad monopolies drove up transportation costs.
而且私营铁路巨头也提高了运费
Many farmers soon went bankrupt.
很快 许多农民就破产了
The federal government did little to help,
联邦政府的救助微不足道
refusing to break up the monopolies
他们拒绝打击垄断
and offering little to ease the suffering.
提供的援助杯水车薪
So farmers took matters into their own hands,
所以农民决定自己掌握命运
banding together to advocate for themselves.
团结起来为自己的利益发声
In May 1891,
1891年5月
one such farmers’ alliance in Kansas
堪萨斯州的一个农民联盟
coined the phrase”populist”,
创造了“民粹主义者”一词
meaning of the people,
意指为了平民利益
to describe their movement.
来描述他们的运动
Within a year, the People’s Party,
一年之内 人民党
also known as the Populist Party, had been formed.
又称民粹党成立了
It was born out of an unlikely alliance between farmers, union leaders,
它的前身是一个由农民 工会领袖
and workers’ organizations, like the Knights of Labor.
和工人组织 组成的不可思议的联盟 就像劳动骑士团
Their collective target was the moneyed elite of the East.
他们的共同目标是东部的富裕精英
Populist orator Mary Ellen Lease famously stated
民粹主义演说家玛丽·埃伦·丽舍说过一句著名的话
that America had become a government of Wall Street,
美国已经成为华尔街的政府
by Wall Street, and for Wall Street.
被华尔街操控 并为华尔街服务
and the Populist Party agitated for massive reform.
民粹党呼吁进行大规模改革
The populists called for the recognition of labor unions,
民粹主义者呼吁对工会的重视
regulation of the railroad industry,
对铁路行业的规范
the direct election of senators,
直接选举参议员
a progressive income tax,
所得税改革
women’s suffrage,
妇女选举权
an eight-hour work day, and more.
八小时工作制等等
These were considered radical ideas at the time.
这些在当时都是激进的理念
Through their collective action,
通过集体努力
the party gained power and a foothold on the national stage.
民粹党获得权力并在国家舞台上站稳了脚跟
In 1892,
1892年
they nominated James B. Weaver for president,
他们提名詹姆斯·B·韦弗为总统
who received 8% of the vote and captured five states.
他获得百分之八的选票并赢得5个州的支持
Two years later,
两年后
the party sent eight members to Congress
民粹党派出8名议员到国会
and captured hundreds of state legislature seats.
赢得了数百个州议会席位
But there were divisive factions within.
但党内存在派系斗争
Nativists and racists blamed Jewish immigrants
本土主义者和种族主义者将他们的困境
and Chinese railroad workers for their woes.
归罪于犹太移民和中国铁路工人
Some populist groups welcomed black farmers in the South,
一些民粹主义团体欢迎南方的黑人农民
but others refused them as the Jim Crow era took hold.
另一些则因吉姆·克劳掌权抵制南方黒人农民
While the movement began outside the two-party system,
民粹主义运动向两党组成的政治体系外延伸
by 1896 the Populist Party had become aligned with the Democratic Party.
到1896年 民粹党与民主党结盟
They nominated William Jennings Bryan for president,
两党共同提名威廉·詹宁斯·布莱恩为总统
an influential populist politician.
一位影响力巨大的民粹主义政治家
This too ostracized many black populists,
这使很多黑人民粹主义者感到被排斥
who felt a loyalty to the Republicans, the party of Lincoln.
他们忠于共和党 即林肯所在的政党
The Populist Party waned,
民粹党风光不再
but its founding ideals would persevere.
但它的创始理念会流传下去
Louisiana governor and Senator Huey Long
路易斯安那州州长和参议员休伊·朗
led a left-wing populist movement that
领导了一场左翼民粹运动
addressed Americans’ real fears during the depths
解决了美国人在大萧条时期
of the Great Depression.
内心深处真正的恐惧
He demanded a radical redistribution of wealth
他积极推动
from the country’s richest citizens to its poorest.
从最富到最穷的社会财富重新分配
His plan, known as Share Our Wealth,
他的计划 被称为“财富共享”
would have capped personal income at $50 million in today’s money.
将个人收入限制在相当于今天的5000万美元内
He considered a run for president in 1936,
他曾在1936年考虑竞选总统
but was assassinated.
但遭人暗杀
His ideas, however, did not die and
他的理念并没有和他一同离世
helped push the already liberal New Deal policies of FDR even further left.
他的理念推动罗斯福开放的新政近一步向左
In the 1950s, America saw one of its first
20世纪50年代 美国
right-wing manifestations of populism
在参议员约瑟夫·麦卡锡的领导下
under Senator Joseph McCarthy.
首次出现了右翼民粹主义
McCarthy claimed communists had infiltrated positions of power
麦卡锡声称共产党
in the government and military with the help of
在东海岸自由派知识分子的帮助下
the East Coast liberal intelligentsia.
已经渗透到政府和军队的权力部门
Attacking the liberal elites echoed
对自由派精英的攻击应和了
the outcries of the original populist movement,
原来民粹运动回归的呼吁
but for very different reasons.
但却是出于不同的理由
In the 1960s, Alabama governor George Wallace
20世纪60年代 阿拉巴马州州长乔治·华莱士
made a name for himself as a staunch segregationist.
以坚定的种族隔离主义者著称
He used populist rhetoric to capitalize
他以民粹主义的言论来利用
on mostly white middle class resentment of
大部分白人中产阶级
the sweeping social changes of the decade.
对近十年社会大变革的不满
The low and middle income group in this country haven’t had any representation,
这个国家的中低收入群体没有任何发言权
and the pseudo-intellectuals have taken over the party in the Democratic Party.
伪知识分子已经占领了民主党
His followers attacked the government, Vietnam War protesters,
他的追随者攻击政府和越南战争抗议者
the media, liberals, and the elite.
还有媒体 自由党人和精英
Populist ideas and rhetoric continued into the modern day.
民粹主义思想和言辞一直延续到现代
Barack Obama, responding to the unsustainable cost of health care,
巴拉克•奥巴马在2008年竞选时
campaigned on universal coverage as a candidate in the 2008 election
以全民医疗为主题 回应了医保的不可持续性
and pushed through the Affordable Care Act as president.
并在任内推动平价医疗法案
The legislation covered many more Americans than before,
这项立法覆盖面前所未有的广
but left the private health care industry intact.
但没有影响到私人医保行业
It was still attacked as radical.
它仍然被攻击为激进主义
No more petitions!
不再请愿!
Fight the politicians!
与政客斗争!
Fight the politicians!
与政客斗争!
In the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries,
2016年民主党总统初选中
Bernie Sanders tapped into a very real anger at
伯尼•桑德利用了人们
both Wall Street and the government over the 2008 financial crisis,
对华尔街和政府在2008年金融危机
the subsequent great recession, and a recovery
和接下来的经济大萧条和经济复苏中
that had left many Americans behind.
所产生的愤怒
As a result of their greed and illegal behavior,
正因为他们的贪婪和违法行为
they drove this economy into the worst
他们把美国经济推入了
economic downturn since The Great Depression.
自大萧条以来最严重的经济衰退
His proposed economic policies,
他提出的经济政策
like a progressive estate tax,
如累进遗产税
doubling the minimum wage,
将最低工资翻倍
and improving paid family and medical leave,
改善家庭休假和病假待遇
paralleled those of the populist farmers of the 1890s.
与19世纪90年代的民粹主义农民的要求相似
It’s going to be so beautiful, and you’re going to pay far less money.
如此美好的前景 却可以省下更多的钱
Donald Trump, while running for president in 2016,
唐纳德•特朗普在2016年竞选总统时
also made a populist appeal to the economic and social insecurity of many Americans,
利用美国人对经济和社会的不安进行民粹主义呼吁
portraying his political opponents and the media as the elite
将政治对手和媒体描绘成精英
and employing a nativist tone similar to the more
发表类似19世纪末民粹主义运动中
divisive factions of the late 19th century populist movement.
极具分裂性的本土主义言论
[chanting]
[喊口号]
Throughout American history,
纵观美国历史
populism has been celebrated, condemned, and appropriated across the political spectrum.
民粹主义在政治舞台上被赞美 谴责和利用过
There is no easy definition,
民粹主义没有简单的定义
but the one thing all populist movements seem to have in common
但民粹主义者的运动似乎有一个共同点
is an appeal to the people, and their fears, anxieties,
即号召群众 鼓动群众的恐惧 焦虑
and dreams of a better world.
以及对美好生活的期望

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视频概述

民粹主义存在于各种政治派别中,那民粹主义意味着什么呢?让我们追本溯源,回到19世纪的美国,从美国民粹主义的历史来理解民粹主义。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Pechow

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_uA1GBzXzr4

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