未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

哲学有什么用?

What is Philosophy for?

哲学离现实生活很远,貌似怪异难懂,无关紧要,乏味无聊,
From a distance, philosophy seems weird, irrelevant, boring…
还有一点神秘。
and yet also – just a little – intriguing.
那么哲学家研究哲学是为什么呢?
But what are philosophers really for?
答案很容易找到,就藏在“哲学”这个词里。
The answer is, handily, already contained in the word philosophy itself.
在古希腊语中,philo代表“爱”,sophia代表“智慧”。
In Ancient Greek, philo means love and sophia means wisdom.
哲学家专注于对智慧的追求
Philosophers are people devoted to wisdom.
所谓智慧,乃面对人生时,追根究底,面对死亡时,安之若素。
Being wise means attempting to live and die well.
在对智慧的追寻过程中,哲学家已经炼就了一种特殊的能力。
In their pursuit of wisdom, philosophers have developed a very
有一些事情,人们云里雾里,但经过数百年的探索积累,哲学家已经见解深刻。
specific skill-set. They have, over the centuries, become experts in
其中有5种值得一提。
many of the things that make people not very wise. Five stand out:
生活中萦绕着重大疑问。生命的意义是什么?
There are lots of big questions around: What is the meaning of life?
为什么要工作?社会应该怎么组织?
What’s a job for? How should society be arranged?
大多数人的思考只是偶一为之,对于做出解答,不抱希望。
Most of us entertain them every now and then, but we despair of trying
甚至,这些问题被当成茶余饭后的笑料,纯属无病呻吟。
to answer them. They have the status of jokes. We call them
但是这些问题非常重要,因为只有做出正确的回答,
‘pretentious’. But they matter deeply because only with sound answers
我们才能活得有意义。
to them can we direct our energies meaningfully.
一般人害怕问问题,而哲学家不。
Philosophers are people unafraid of asking questions. They have, over
在漫长的历史长河中,他们的疑问恰恰是最宏大的。
the centuries, asked the very largest. They realise that these
同时,他们意识到,把这些问题分解成若干个部分后,会更容易处理。
questions can always be broken down into more manageable chunks and
而有些人,自视甚高,不屑于发出此类貌似幼稚的提问,他们才是真正矫揉造作的,
that the only really pretentious thing is to think one is above
殊不知这些问题重要且严肃。
raising big naive-sounding enquiries.
在无数的领域,公众的观念,或者说常识,都是合理明智的。
Public opinion – or what gets called ‘common sense’ – is sensible and
你可以从朋友和邻居那里得知,
reasonable in countless areas. It’s what you hear about from friends
不假思索便相信。
and neighbours, the stuff you take in without even thinking about it.
但是,常识也经常包含愚蠢与谬误。
But common sense is also often full of daftness and error.
然而,哲学可以帮助我们将常识的各个方面加以推敲。
Philosophy gets us to submit all aspects of common sense to reason.
它希望我们能独立思考。大家口口相传的
It wants us to think for ourselves. Is it really true what people say
爱,钱,儿童,旅游,工作对不对呢?
about love, money, children, travel, work? Philosophers are interested
哲学家感兴趣的是推究观点是否合逻辑,而不会
in asking whether an idea is logical – rather than simply assuming it
因为它受众广泛,历时悠久就无凭无据地相信。
must be right because it is popular and long-established.
我们不是很清楚头脑中的意识。
We’re not very good at knowing what goes on in our own minds.
有些人令人生厌,但是不知道为什么。
Someone we meet is very annoying, but we can’t pin down what the issue is.
或者当我们大发雷霆时,不能立马知道自己恼怒什么。
Or we lose our temper, but can’t readily tell what we’re so cross about.
我们缺乏洞悉自己满足与不满的眼光。
We lack insight into our own satisfactions and dislikes.
这就是为什么我们需要审视自己的头脑。哲学致力于认识自己,
That’s why we need to examine our own minds. Philosophy is committed
其关键原则,古希腊最早,最伟大的哲学家——苏格拉底曾经直截了当地表述过,
to self-knowledge – and its central precept – articulated by the
仅仅五个字,
earliest, greatest philosopher, Socrates – is just two words long:
认识你自己。
Know yourself.
我们并不很擅长于使自己幸福。因为我们在试图改善生活的时候,
We’re not very good at making ourselves happy. We overrate the power
高估了一些东西的作用,而低估了其余的东西的作用。
of some things to improve our lives – and underrate others.
受广告和虚假信息的诱惑,我们做出了错误的选择,
We make the wrong choices because, guided by advertising and false glamour,
误以为一个不寻常的度假、汽车、电脑能起很大作用,
we keep on imagining that a particular kind of holiday, or car, or computer
但是事与愿违。
will make a bigger difference than it can.
同时,我们低估了其他事情的作用,
At the same time, we underestimate the contribution of other things –
例如散步,受人忽视,
like going for a walk – which may have little prestige but can
但是非常有助于人格的培养。
contribute deeply to the character of existence.
通过比普通人更加精确地识别出有助于改善生活的活动和态度,
Philosophers seek to be wise by getting more precise about the
哲学家变得智慧。
activities and attitudes that really can help our lives to go better.
哲学家擅长于判断什么是真正重要的,什么不是。
Philosophers are good at keeping a sense of what really matters and what doesn’t.
在一次海难中,当得知自己一无所有后,
On hearing the news that he’d lost all his possessions in a shipwreck,
哲学家芝诺坦然面对,只说了一句:
the Stoic philosopher Zeno simply said:
“过去,金钱桎梏着我的哲学研究,现在,千金散尽,如释重负。”
‘Fortune commands me to be a less encumbered philosopher.’
诸如此类的回应,使得“哲学的”这个词
It’s responses like these that have made the very term ‘philosophical’
成为心胸豁达,勤思不怠,意志顽强的代名词,
a byword for calm, long-term thinking and strength-of-mind,
简而言之,代表了正确合理。
in short, for perspective.
在现代,哲学智慧的传播形式大多是书本。
The wisdom of philosophy is – in modern times – mostly delivered in
在古代,哲学家坐在市集广场上,
the form of books. But in the past, philosophers sat in market squares
和店家讨论问题;给当权提建议,
and discussed their ideas with shopkeepers or went into government
直接去政府办公楼或官邸。
offices and palaces to give advice. It wasn’t abnormal to have a
雇用哲学家干活不算奇怪,因为哲学思考被视为平常,基本的活动,
philosopher on the payroll. Philosophy was thought of as a normal,
而不是稀罕,深奥,可有可无的奢侈品。
basic activity – rather than as an unusual, esoteric, optional extra.
如今,公开否认哲学的现象不是很严重,
Nowadays, it’s not so much that we overtly deny this thought but we
但世上也没有合适的机构,能条分缕析地传播哲学智慧。
just don’t have the right institutions set up to promulgate wisdom
未来,当哲学观点清晰明了一些时,
coherently in the world. In the future, though, when the value of
希望在平时日常也能遇见更多的哲学家。
philosophy is a little clearer, we can expect to meet more
他们不应该被圈在象牙塔里,
philosophers in daily life. They won’t be locked up, living mainly in
因为愚昧正蚕食、搅乱我们的生活,
university departments, because the points at which our unwisdom bites
这种情况不在少数,亟待关注,
– and messes up our lives – are multiple and urgently need attention –
就是现在。
right now.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIYdx6lDDhg

相关推荐