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经济学概念:机会成本

What Is Opportunity Cost?

什么是机会成本?
– [Narrator] What isopportunity cost?
机会成本指的是
Opportunity cost refersto the value
一个人接受某个选择 而放弃的另一个选择
a person could have received but passed up in pursuit of another option.
如果你排队等待
So if you were to wait
领取免费的冰激凌
in line for free ice cream,
实际上你放弃了
you actually give up the opportunity to do
把时间花在其它事情上的机会
something else with your time,
比如工作或者看一本书
like working at a job or reading a book.
所以冰激凌并不是真的免费
So that ice creamreally isn’t free.
经济学者甚至用机会成本这一概念
Economists even usethe concept of opportunity cost
来判断人们是否可以从彼此的交易中获益
to determineif people can benefit from trading with one another.
让我们看一个简单例子
Let’s look at a simple example —
有两个人 鲍勃和安 生产两种产品
just two people, Bob and Ann, who produce just two goods,
香蕉和鱼
bananas and fish.
因为机会成本的概念
Because of the conceptof opportunity costs,
当安和鲍勃每件事都尝试的话 他们感觉更糟糕
Ann and Bob are worse off when they try to do everything themselves.
如果鲍勃花费所有时间
Here’s what Bob can do if he spends all
只生产一种产品
of his time producing only one good.
鲍勃只能收获十根香蕉
Bob can eithergather 10 bananas,
或者捉到十条鱼
or he can catch 10 fish.
安也只能收获十根香蕉
And Ann can eithergather 10 bananas
或者捉到三十条鱼
or catch 30 fish.
鲍勃只能选择去摘香蕉或者捕鱼
Bob has to chooseto gather bananas or catch fish.
当他选择摘一根香蕉时 就要放弃捕一条鱼
When he chooses to gather 1 banana, he gives up 1 fish.
实质上鲍勃是和自己交易
In essence,Bob trades with himself.
他可以用那段时间去摘香蕉
He can use that time to gather bananas
或者捉鱼
or trade that time to catch fish,
交易的代价是一条鱼换一根香蕉
and the cost of that tradeis 1 fish per banana.
这是鲍勃的机会成本
That’s Bob’s opportunity cost.
安也是同理
The same holds true for Ann,
但她的生产成本是一根香蕉等于三条鱼
but her cost of producing 1 banana is 3 fish.
安摘一根香蕉所需的时间
In the amount of time that it takes Ann to gather 1 banana,
相当于她可以捉三条鱼的时间
she could have caught 3 fish.
她用一条香蕉换三条鱼
She trades with herself1 banana for 3 fish.
所以鲍勃不得不
So Bob only has to give
放弃捉一条鱼 而去摘一根香蕉
up 1 fish to produce 1 banana,
而安必须放弃捉三条鱼 而改为摘一根香蕉
but Ann must give up 3 fishto produce 1 banana.
安获得香蕉的机会成本
Ann’s opportunity costof gathering a banana
比鲍勃高多了
is higher than Bob’s.
如果安和鲍勃允许彼此交易的话
If Ann and Bob are allowedto trade with one another,
他们将从特殊情况下获得收益
they may be able to gainfrom specialization
那就是安专注于捉鱼
if Ann focuses on catching fish,
而鲍勃专注于摘香蕉
and Bob focuseson gathering bananas.
由于时间有限 我们所做的决定也是一种成本
Because our time is valuable, any decision we make has a cost.
如果我们将时间专注于我们擅长的方面
If we focus our timeon tasks we’re good at,
像安和鲍勃那样 我们最后将找到更合适的位置
like Ann and Bob, then we end up in a better position
和我们每件事都去尝试相比更有效
than if we try to do everything ourselves.
想了解交易中更多特定的角色
To learn more about the roleof specialization in trade,
点击这里
click here. Or,
或者想测试你的机会成本的相关知识 点击这里
to test your knowledgeon opportunity cost, click here.
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Still here?
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视频概述

站在经济学角度举例说明如何利用机会成本来创造价值

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-hYzRncxTc

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