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欧佩克是什么?

What is OPEC? | CNBC Explains

Oil isn’t just petrol for your car.
石油不仅仅是汽车的汽油
It’s an ingredient in a lot of what we use
从保持双手干净的塑料手套
from the plastic glove that keeps your hand clean
到让你上路的轮胎
to the tires that keep you on the road.
都是我们常用物品中的一种成分
Which means these products
这意味着这些产品
can be affected by the fluctuating price of oil.
会受到油价浮动的影响
That price is largely decided by supply and demand
而油价主要是由其供求关系决定的
and the collective actions of an organization that provides 40% of the world’s oil – OPEC.
以及提供世界石油40%的欧佩克组织的集体行为
欧佩克是什么?
OPEC stands for the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
欧佩克是石油输出国组织的缩写
It was formed in 1960
1960年由创始成员国
by founding members Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
伊拉克 科威特 伊朗 沙特阿拉伯和委内瑞拉组成
The group was created to monitor the stability and prices of the petroleum market,
成立此组织的目的是为了监测石油市场的稳定和价格
which was previously determined by U.S. dominated multinational oil companies.
而石油市场此前由美国主导的跨国石油公司决定
Currently OPEC member countries also include Algeria, Angola, Ecuador,
目前欧佩克成员国还包括阿尔及利亚 安哥拉 厄瓜多尔
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.
赤道几内亚 加蓬 利比亚 尼日利亚 卡塔尔以及阿拉伯联合酋长国
Today these oil producing member countries supply over 40% of the world’s crude oil production.
如今 这些产油成员国供应的原油占世界原油产量的40%以上
And together they control more than 80% of the world’s proven crude oil reserves.
并且控制着全球80%以上的已探明原油储量
OPEC’s oil and energy ministers meet twice a year in Vienna, Austria
欧佩克石油和能源部长每年在维也纳和奥地利举行两次会议
where they collectively decide
在那里他们集体决定
whether to raise or lower oil output in order to maintain a stable market.
是提高还是降低石油产量以维持市场稳定
Critics argue that it’s a way for them to maintain the price they want.
批评者认为这是他们维持自己想要的价格的一种方式
But does OPEC actually control world oil?
但是欧佩克真的控制着世界石油吗?
The biggest consumers of oil are the U.S. and China.
最大的石油消费群体是在美国和中国
It was China’s rapid development in the early 2000s
这是中国在21世纪初的快速发展
coupled with a lack of growth in the production of oil
再加上石油的生产增长缓慢
which sent the price of oil shooting up.
导致石油的价格暴涨
In turn, those high prices
继而 这些高油价
made it profitable for non-OPEC countries like the U.S. and Canada
使得美国和加拿大等非欧佩克国家
to go after and discover harder to extract oil.
更努力地寻找并开采石油以获取利润
Because they weren’t bound by the cartel’s decisions
因为他们不受卡特尔决定的约束
these countries have grown their levels of supply,
这些国家的供应水平有所增加
which meant OPEC’s market influence began to decline.
这意味着欧佩克的市场影响力开始下降
A rise in supply and a reduced demand for oil in Europe and Asia
欧洲和亚洲石油供应增加及其需求减少
led to the price of oil crashing.
导致油价暴跌
This caused political problems in some OPEC countries like Venezuela
这使一些欧佩克国家引发了政治问题 如委内瑞拉
where oil is the chief driver of the economy.
那里的石油是经济的主要驱动力
It has the largest proven oil reserves in the world
它拥有世界最大的探明原油储量
but also the highest inflation rate on the planet.
以及地球上最高的通货膨胀率
But for most consumers,
但对于大多数消费者来说
the drop in the price of oil has meant cheaper fuel and lower energy costs.
油价的下跌意味着更便宜的燃料和更低的能源成本
Since 2016 however, oil prices have been steadily rising.
然而自2016年以来 油价一直在稳步增长
Later that year the Saudi-led OPEC members agreed
同年随后 以沙特为首的欧佩克成员国同意减产
the first production cuts since 2008, a reduction of around one million barrels a day.
这是自2008年以来的首次减产 每天减产约100万桶
Crucially, Russia and 10 other non-members also agreed to pump less oil.
关键是俄罗斯和其他十个非成员国也同意减少石油开采量
OPEC and its allies agreed to extend the cuts through to the end of 2018.
欧佩克及其盟国一致同意将减产计划延长至2018年底
But in the U.S. there’s a shale oil boom.
但在美国 页岩油正蓬勃发展
Production levels recently hit a record high
页岩油的产量最近创历史新高
and are predicted to surpass both Saudi Arabia and Russia.
并且预计会超过沙特阿拉伯和俄罗斯
But even with higher output levels,
即使随着产量水平的提高
the U.S. still imports roughly 300 million barrels of oil a month.
美国仍然坚持每月进口约三亿桶石油
For the renewable energy industry, however, keeping oil supply high and steady makes it
然而 对于可再生能源行业来说 保持足量和稳定的石油供应
an attractive alternative and might be one of the most powerful tools to grow the sector.
使其成为一个有吸引力的替代品 可能是该行业增长的最有力的工具之一
But the price of oil remains volatile.
但是油价仍不稳定
Geopolitical factors such as the Iran nuclear deal and President Trump threatening OPEC
伊朗核协议和川普总统威胁欧佩克等地缘政治因素
could see the prices go up or down,
可能导致油价上下浮动
but in the end the forces of supply and demand would ultimately determine the price.
但最终供求力量将最终决定价格
With more than 80% of the world’s proven oil reserves
由于世界上80%以上的已探明石油储量
OPEC in the 21century continues to be relevant
欧佩克在21世纪继续发挥着重要作用
and their decisions can still affect the price of oil
他们的决定即使只是暂时的
if just temporarily.
仍然会影响油价
But as new sources of energy gradually replace hydrocarbons,
但是随着新能源逐渐取代碳氢化合物
the oil industry faces a race against time.
石油工业面临着与时间抗衡的竞争
In the words of an ex-Saudi oil minister,
用前沙特石油部长的话来说
“The Stone Age did not end for lack of stone,
“石器时代没有因缺乏石头而结束
and the Oil Age will end long before the world runs out of oil.”
而石油时代 早在世界石油枯竭前 就将结束”
Hi guys, Tom here thanks for watching our explaining.
大家好 汤姆在这里感谢您的收看
Check out more of our videos here and whilst you’re at it, don’t forget to subscribe
在这里查看更多我们的视频的同时 别忘了订阅哦

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视频概述

为什么油价会上下浮动?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

杜若

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审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mlWmJt8O8Kw

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