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什么是神经反馈疗法? – 译学馆
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什么是神经反馈疗法?

What Is Neurofeedback Therapy?

[前奏]
[♪ INTRO]
人的行为可以通过检控脑电波来改变吗?
What if you could change your behavior just by monitoring your brainwaves?
这是神经反馈疗法的目标
That’s the goal of neurofeedback therapy,
这种非药物的疗法
a non-drug method used to treat conditions
用于治疗多动症 抑郁症 焦虑症等疾病
from ADHD to depression and anxiety.
但是神经反馈的科学原理还不够坚实
But the science behind neurofeedback is far from solid.
它的部分原理是可信的 却也太深奥了
While it has some credible foundations, they’re buried pretty deep.
而且这方面的研究结果自相矛盾
And the research in this field is riddled with conflicts and contradictions,
包括它所要改正的脑电波是否真的有问题
including whether the brainwaves it aims to correct are all that wrong in the first place.
一般而言 神经反馈疗法使用实时数据
Neurofeedback is a type of therapy that uses real-time data –
也就是脑电图的电子数据
usually electrical data in the form of EEGs —
来教你怎样调节脑电波模式
to supposedly teach you to regulate your brainwave patterns.
这种疗法依赖于两种概念
And the treatment relies on two concepts.
第一个是操作条件反射
The first is operant conditioning:
即后果能强化行为的概念
the idea that consequences can strengthen a behavior.
它是现代心理学的基本原则
Which is a bedrock principle of modern psychology —
因为我们知道 奖励可以用来改变行为
we know that rewards are great for changing behaviors.
第二个概念是神经可塑性
The second concept is neural plasticity.
心理学家所说的神经可塑性
When psychologists talk about brains being plastic,
可不是“塑胶”的”塑”
they don’t mean, like, plastic plastic.
他们是指 大脑的结构和功能
They mean that the way our brain is structured, and therefore how it functions,
总是会为适应生活的需要而变化
is always changing and adapting to what life demands of us.
而神经反馈在很大程度上依赖这两个概念
Neurofeedback leans heavily on both of these ideas.
究其原因是如果你因为从患者身上看到
The reasoning is that if you reward people for the behavior
你想看到的 例如专注力提高的表现
or EEG pattern you want to see from them —
或从焦虑状态中放松下来的脑电图
like concentrating better or calming down from an anxious state —
你就会看到神经通路发生持续性变化
you’ll see lasting changes to neural pathways
以使目标更易实现
that make them easier to achieve.
进行神经反馈治疗时
During a neurofeedback session,
患者会接受实时脑电波检测
readings of electrical brain activity are analyzed as they happen,
同时会得到有关脑电波是否看似正常的反馈
and feedback is given to the patient on whether or not those patterns look, well, normal.
但是 “正常”的脑电波存在大量自然变异
This is despite the fact that there’s a lot of natural variation in what a “normal” brainwave is,
所以神经反馈从业者要执行客观标准
so neurofeedback practitioners are enforcing a subjective standard here.
理论上 神经反馈可以帮助患者
In theory, this helps the patient pinpoint ways
找到控制“不正常”脑电波的方法
to keep those apparently abnormal brain waves in check.
比如说 一个焦虑症患者接受治疗时
For example, if a patient is undergoing treatment for anxiety,
可以积极地尝试专注 放松等方法
they can actively try to alter their brainwaves,
让自己看起来更“典型”
through focusing, relaxation or… whatever helps them look more “typical”.
成功的话 他们就会获得奖励
If they manage it, they get a reward, like,
比如 可以看自己喜欢的电影
showing them their favorite movie.
从业者表示 有了这个反馈和奖励系统
Using this system of feedback and rewards,
他们可以进行训练
practitioners say they can train people’s brain activity
让患者的脑部活动变得与正常脑电波一致
to be in line with supposedlynormal brainwaves.
据说 这种疗法可以消除很多疾病的症状
And that is supposed to resolve symptoms of a ton of different disorders!
比如多动症 精神分裂症 抑郁症等等
ADHD, schizophrenia, depression — and more.
再次强调 只是理论上而已
Again — in theory.
一般来说 有关神经反馈的研究结果不一致
Generally speaking, the research into neurofeedback is… kind of a hot mess.
数项元分析综合了数个研究的数据
Some meta-analyses, which look at data from across several studies to spot trends,
号称是有效的 但其它的并非如此
say it’s effective, but others don’t.
2016年的一项元分析很好地描述了这一问题
One review from 2016 gives a good snapshot of the situation,
它提出一些元分析结论可能不一致的原因
and suggests why analyses might come to such different conclusions.
经过一番搜索后 他们找到了30项研究
After trawling through everything, they identified 30 studies,
总参与人数为1171
with a grand total of 1171 participants,
这些研究具有良好的科学基础
that met their criteria
符合他们的标准
for being scientifically sound.
意思是说 参与者被随机分配到了实验组或对照组
That meant participants were randomized into experimental or control groups,
而参与者和实验人员都不知道
and that both participants and experimenters were blind
自己属于哪个实验条件
to which experimental condition they were in.
他们也确保了纳入分析中的研究
They also ensured the included studies were not funded
不是由神经反馈疗法公司资助的
by companies that sell neurofeedback sessions,
因为这可能导致分析结果受到影响
which might have led to the findings being skewed.
整体来说 这30项研究的分析结果不一致
Overall, the review of these 30 studies found mixed results.
很多研究表明神经反馈具有一定效用
Many of the studies showed that neurofeedback had some effect,
但研究人员发现 所有研究都存在严重缺陷
but the researchers found serious limitations throughout the entire body of research.
很多研究采用的方法不够严谨
The methods used in a lot of the studies weren’t as rigorous as they needed to be
无法证明神经反馈有效
to suggest neurofeedback had any effect.
其中很多都没有设置适当的对照实验
Many of the studies were poorly controlled.
30项研究中 只有3项设置了安慰剂组
Only three of those 30 studies had a placebo group —
这是重要的对照 能确保人们由于期望
an important control that makes sure people don’t start feeling better
而觉得自己变好了
simply because they expect to.
而且大多数研究的样本太小
And most had sample sizes that were far too small
从而无法得出任何实质结论
to draw any real conclusions.
他们总结 我们需要更大型且设计良好的研究
They concluded that more large, well designed studies were needed
才能确定神经反馈是个可行的疗法
before neurofeedback could be considered a viable treatment.
虽然神经反馈似乎让一些病人症状有所缓解
While some patients seem to have found relief via neurofeedback,
但这并不代表神经反馈的效果和我们的预想一样
that doesn’t necessarily mean that neurofeedback affects people in the way we think it might.
一些科学家认为
Some scientists raise issue with the fact
神经反馈疗法针对的一些脑电图变异
that neurofeedback practitioners might be targeting certain EEG variations
跟其目标疾病没太大关系
that don’t have much to do with the conditions they aim to treat.
毕竟 每个人的脑电图型都不一样
After all, EEG patterns differ from person to person.
两个人的脑电图型可能会不一样
Two people’s patterns may not match each other,
但不代表其中一人就是不正常的
but that doesn’t make one of them abnormal.
批评者认为 病患在接受治疗后
Critics argue that when there is a shift in a patient’s condition
病情或脑电图出现的变化
or EEG after neurofeedback,
可能是病患学会了放松或转移注意力导致的
it might just be the result of the patient being conditioned to relax or refocus their attention.
但我们没有理由相信
But there’s no reason to think
所谓的脑电波问题已经解决了
that some supposed problem with their brainwaves has actually been fixed.
如果病患感觉好了 那太棒了
If the patient feels better about their condition, great —
但神经反馈的作用不一定跟支持者的说法一样
but it still doesn’t mean neurofeedback is doing what its backers say it’s doing.
就算神经反馈帮到了病患
Even if it helps people somehow,
我们需要知道其作用是否与支持者宣称的一致
we need to know whether it works the way they claim.
若希望神经反馈成为循证疗法
For neurofeedback to really come into its own as an evidence-based therapy,
神经反馈从业者需要消除这些顾虑
its practitioners will need to address all of these concerns.
他们需要改善研究设计
They’ll need to improve their study designs.
也需要描述出非典型脑电图长什么样
They’ll need to really show what an atypical EEG looks like,
还要证明训练脑电波能改善与此相关的疾病
and then show that training those patterns improves the conditions they’re supposedly associated with.
然而 在这之前
Until then, however,
我们也只能等待更严谨的研究的出现
we’ll need to wait for some more rigorous research.
感谢收看本集《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych.
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欲知详情 请访问 patreon.com/scishow
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什么是神经反馈疗法?

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