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纳豆究竟是什么?

What is Natto?

Ancient Japanese staple and supposed superfood
作为古时日本人的主食和所谓的超级食品
Natto gets a lot of hype for something that looks like beans swimming in slimy pond scum.
纳豆因像在黏糊的池塘浮渣中游动的东西而引发诸多炒作
Fermenting soybeans using bacteria creates something slimy and sticky
用细菌发酵大豆会产生粘稠的东西
but also funky and savory
而且会产生一些风味
and some people believe, based on a growing body of evidence, pretty good for you.
基于越来越多的证据 一些人相信证明这对人们有好处
Natto is often eaten in Japan as a high-protein breakfast food.
在日本纳豆经常被作为高蛋白早餐食用
Just add some soy sauce, maybe a little mustard, green onions or raw egg yolk
只需在米饭上加一点酱油 芥末酱
and serve over rice — like we did I here.
葱或生蛋黄 像这样就行
It’s pungent, by which I do mean stinky
它的味道很刺鼻 我的意思是很臭
and is often compared to washed rind cheese
由于具有复杂的刺鼻臭味
in terms of its complex funkiness
和扑面而来的气味
and general sort of in-your-face nests.
常与水洗皮奶酪放在一起比较
When I tried it, I got strong notes of both cheese and coffee
我闻到了浓烈的奶酪 咖啡混合味
which don’t seem like they’d go well together.
它们似乎不应该混合在一起
It’s an acquired taste
这是一种后天形成的味道
but I can see how you’d go about acquiring it
但是我可以让你看到是怎么形成的
it’s actually really interesting!
这真的太有趣了!
In fermentation, you use microbes that grow
在发酵过程中 利用微生物的
and actually kind of pre-digest your food
预消化食物和生长
to create new and interesting changes
使其风味 气味 口感甚至营养成分方面
in the flavor ,the smell, the mouthfeel and even nutritional content.
发生一些有趣的新变化
But you only want specific, friendly microbes setting up camp.
但你只想特定的 友好的微生物在食物上“驻扎”
You don’t want others in there that could cause the food to spoil.
而不是会使食物变质的微生物
To transform soybeans into natto, makers use a particular strain of the bacterium B. subtilis,
制作者使用B-枯草芽孢杆菌来制作纳豆
a common soil-dwelling bacterium with some neat tricks up its sleeve.
这是常见而富有奇招的土壤细菌
When B. subtilis are facing stress from their environment, they have an escape plan
面对环境压力 枯草杆菌有一个逃跑计划
they can start forming dormant cells
它们开始形成休眠细胞
housed in super-tough armor called spores.
并包裹在超级坚固的孢子中
Spores aren’t really alive
孢子并不是活的
They’re kind of like seeds of a plant but they’re practically indestructible.
它们有点像植物的种子 但却坚不可摧
They’re resistant to extreme temperatures, corrosive chemicals, and even radiation.
它们能抵抗极端温度 腐蚀性化学物质 甚至辐射
And they don’t need food or water.
它们生存不需要食物和水
So you can cook your soybeans at temperatures and pressures
所以使用高温和高压烹煮大豆
that would kill most other microbes that might be around.
这样可以杀死大豆周围大部分微生物
Then you introduce B. subtilis spores while the soy beans are still hot
趁着大豆还热的时候引入枯草杆菌孢子
and those Bacillus spores are the only thing that can stand to be in there.
只有芽孢才能够在这种环境下生存
After that, your natto-to-be is held in hot, humid conditions for about a day
接着 让纳豆在炎热潮湿的环境中保存一天左右
or so to allow the bacteria to settle in and get to work.
使得细菌生长并开始预消化黄豆
Since no one else is home, B. subtilis spores wake up
枯草杆菌在无其他菌种的环境下苏醒
and have no absolutely competition to eat the lovely beans.
它们独自享受这可爱的豆子
And the effect of its munching is to transform the bland unfermented soybeans into…THIS.
咀嚼的效果是把平淡的大豆变成这样子
But why do the bacteria produce these gooey strings?
但是细菌为何会产生这些粘稠的东西呢?
Turns out this slippery substance is what microbiologists called a biofilm
这种光滑的物质就是微生物学家所说的生物膜
a protective environment for the bacteria to live in
生物膜是细菌给自己创造的
something lots of bacteria make for themselves.
使得细菌自身有一个赖以生存的环境
This particular biofilm is made primarily of polyglutamate.
这种特殊的生物膜主要由聚谷氨酸构成
The amino acid glutamate is responsible for the flavor of savoriness
谷氨酸使得其有特殊风味
these strings shed glutamate molecules
这些丝状物分泌出谷氨酸分子
which our tongues perceive as umami.
从而我们的舌头会感觉到鲜味
More umami flavor emerges in the Natto over time as the biofilm produces more glutamate molecules.
随着谷氨酸分子的积累 纳豆会愈发鲜美
Protected by this biofilm the bacteria go to town
受生物膜保护的细菌会大量繁殖
chowing down on the carbs & proteins of the beans.
吸收豆子的碳水化合物和蛋白质
The fermentation of natto takes place above pH 7
纳豆的发酵需要在pH值7以上
it’s an alkaline-fermented food.
这是一种碱性发酵食品
A lot of other fermented foods are actually acidic
许多其他发酵食品是酸性的
which makes them taste sour.
这使得它们口感很酸
That’s probably why I went in expecting the natto to taste like yogurt or something
我原以为纳豆尝起来会像酸奶之类的
instead it had a more earthy, slightly bitter flavor
相反它有一种如泥土一般微苦的味道
that reminded me of coffee or truffles.
这让我想起了咖啡和松露
Like a lot of fermented foods, natto was likely “discovered” by accident
纳豆同其他发酵食品一样很可能是偶然“发现”的
and turned out to be a good way to preserve soybeans.
竟成了保存大豆的好方法
But it’s still best fresh, as opposed to frozen.
但它仍是最新鲜的 而非冷冻的
And since it will slowly keep fermenting in your fridge
因为它会在你的冰箱里慢慢发酵
after a while, it can get pretty strong.
一段时间后 它会变得很强壮
There’s also a lot of buzz surrounding the health benefits of natto.
关于纳豆的健康益处也有很多传言
The label “superfood” is usually more hype than substance
“超级食品”的标签通常是炒作大于实质
but scientists have taken an interest in natto
但是科学家已经对纳豆产生兴趣
and what it might do for us.
并研究它对我们的益处
For example, natto is the most potent food source of vitamin K2
例如 纳豆是维生素K2最有效的食物来源
a micronutrient that helps build bone
这种微量元素有助于钙的运输
by transporting calcium from your bloodstream to your bones.
将钙从血液输送到骨骼 帮助骨骼生长
And B. subtilis is found in healthy human guts
而枯草杆菌存在于健康的人体内脏中
so eating natto might have probiotic effects.
所以吃纳豆可能有益生菌的作用
Natto also contains nattokinase, an enzyme made by B. subtilis
纳豆中也含有枯草杆菌产生的纳豆激酶
that’s been shown both in the lab and in humans
体外和体内实验都证实了
to have potentially useful effects as a blood thinner
这种酶在血液稀释方面有潜在的作用
and therefore in fighting heart disease.
从而起到对抗心脏病的作用
It supposedly works by breaking down blood clots
它大概是通过分解血块
so they can’t get stuck in your arteries and cause a heart attack or stroke.
从而避免血块堵塞血管而引发心脏病或中风
Human trials are still ongoing into the effects of nattokinase
纳豆激酶对心脏病和阿尔兹海默症的影响
in heart disease as well as things like Alzheimer’s.
仍然在人体实验中进行认证
We definitely don’t know everything about nattokinase yet
我们并没有完全了解纳豆
like how or whether it’s actually absorbed by the body
我们不知道它是否会或者如何被人体吸收
and whether it might interfere with other drugs.
或它是否会与别的药物反应
But doctors are keeping an eye on this one.
但医生正在密切关注这一情况
That said, natto doesn’t have to be a health food to be worth eating.
因此纳豆并不一定是值得食用的健康食品
You can just enjoy the slimy funkiness,which I sort a did.
你可以跟我一样尽管享受这种黏糊糊的时尚
Let’s be real. I’ll give it another shot sometime.
让我们现实点吧 改天我再试一次
We want to give a huge shoutout and thanks to Ann Yonetani of NYrture Foods.
感谢NYrture Foods的Ann Yonetani
Who, when we reached out about potentially fact-checking an episode was so thrilled
当我们联系她核实某段情节时她很激动
She sent us a bunch of free natto
她给了我们一堆免费的纳豆
and Internet resources and images and all kinds of great stuff!I
还有网络资源 图片 以及各种好东西
Thanks so much Ann.
非常感谢Ann
Thanks for watching and thank you Paul Smith and Chelsea Conlin for asking about natto.
感谢收看 感谢Paul Smith和Chelsea Conlin 提出的关于纳豆问题
Drop your food chemistry questions in the comments.
在评论区提出你的食物化学问题
We love these ideas so we’ll see if we can take them on.
看是否能够与我们产生共鸣
Remember to subscribe, share, and hit the bell to get notified
记得订阅 分享并点击提醒按钮
so we can waltz into your feed with a brand new funky food stuff every week.
我们就可以每周为你带来不一样的新鲜食物

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视频概述

视频讲述了纳豆的来源,保存方式以及其价值

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

hilme

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9a7LKle9AQ

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