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近视是怎么回事?

What is Myopia (Short sightedness)?

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MYOPIA ORIGIN OF THE WORD
近视 词语源起
It comes from the Greek word muōps meaning short-sighted
该词源于希腊语muōps 意为目光短浅
these people cannot see distant objects clearly.
有这样特点的人不能看清楚远处物体
ANATOMY Before we can describe myopia let’s compare
解剖 为了更好理解 在细说近视之前
the eye ball to a camera for better understanding.
可以把眼球比作照相机
When we take a picture,
我们拍照时
light after reflecting from an object enters the camera
物体反射的光进入照相机
and passes through following;
光线会经过以下组件
Firstly, it passes a transparent glass in
照相机光圈前有块透明玻璃
front of the aperture of the camera.
光首先通过它
Then secondly, it passes a Camera lens
然后通过一个透镜
that helps us in focusing light rays and lastly,
透镜可以使光线聚焦
there is a Camera film on which light is focused for a clear picture.
焦点处有一胶片 光在这里呈现出清晰图像
Eye is somewhat similar as when we see an object,
眼睛看物体的原理与此类似
light after reflection from that object enters our eye through;
经过物体反射的光线进入我们的眼睛
Firstly, it passes cornea
光首先通过角膜
(the transparentcurved front part of eye )
即眼睛前部弧形透明组织
then secondly, it passes through the crystalline lens that helps us
然后光线通过晶状体
in focusing light rays and lastly,
被聚焦
there is the retina
最后光到达视网膜
( light sensitive receptor cells in the posterior part of eye ball )
即眼球后部的感光细胞
on which light is focused for a clear image.
光线在视网膜上汇聚出清晰的图像
Definition of Myopia
近视的定义
It is a form of refractive error
近视是一种光折射异常
( inability to refract/ bend/focus the light rays properly )
不能适当地折射 弯曲 聚焦光线
in which parallel rays of light
进入人眼的平行光
( i.e. Coming from a distinct object )
即 远处物体的反射光
after entering the eye are focused in front of the retina
进入人眼后被聚焦在视网膜之前
instead of on retina with eye muscles at rest.
而不是视网膜上 此时眼肌是放松的
causes
原因
Curvature:
曲率
increase of curvature of cornea
角膜或晶状体曲率增加
or lens causes light rays to be focused in front of retina
导致光线聚焦于视网膜之前
and hence myopia occurs.
从而发生近视
Axial: increase in axial length of eye,
眼轴:眼轴变长
increases the converging power and cause ligjt rays
增加了聚光力
to be focused in front of retina
导致光线聚焦于视网膜之前
Index: increase in refractive index
折光率:晶状体折光率增加
( i.e. light bending/focusing power)
即 让光线弯曲或聚集的能力
of the lens (For example in cataract)
例如白内障
Positional: anterior displacement of lens
位置性原因:晶状体移位
e.g. after trauma this again causes light
晶状体创伤后
rays to be focused in front of retina
光线聚焦于视网膜之前
TYPES Congenital: from birth
分类 先天性:出生后就有
Sample: most common, starts from 5-10 years till 15-20 years
简单性:最常见的就是5—10岁发现 持续到15—20岁
and is mostly due to curvature or length problem of eye ball
最常见原因就是曲率大和眼轴长
Pathological: hereditary, progressive and
病理性:遗传性 进行性
is due to degenerative changes in the eyes.
原因是眼部的退行性改变
CLINICAL FEATURES
临床特点
SYMPTOMS Blurred vision
症状 视力模糊
Half shutting of eyes (parents of child will tell)
眯眼(孩子的父母能鉴别这一细节)
Outward deviation of eye (Divergent squint)
眼外偏:外斜视
( normal patients require to move their eyes inward
患者一般会内移眼睛
while focusing near objects
这样才能看清近处
this is not required in myopic pts
近视患者不需要这样
causing their eye to move out intermittently or constantly )
导致眼睛间歇性或持续性外移
SIGNS Prominent eye ball (as eye is big)
体征 眼球突出(眼睛大的人会发生)
Retinal changes (in pathological myopia)
视网膜改变(存在于病理性近视)
DIAGNOSIS
诊断
Retinoscopy (a hand-held device that throws
视网膜检影法 这是一种手持仪器
light in the eye and allowing us to
将一束光线射入眼睛
observe its movements and reflection, hence helping
观察光线的移动和反射
to confirm the refractive error )
从而确定眼球折光率的异常
A-scan ( a small ultrasound probe that throws
A扫描 一种超声波检查
Ultrasound waves in the eye ball
向眼球内发射超声波
and then detects their reflections or echo timings,
然后记录回声或反射的时间
calculating the eye ball length)
计算眼轴长度
Treatment
治疗
Unlike the camera, maximum (2/3rd) focusing in an eye
和照相机不同 眼睛聚焦功能最强的地方(2/3)
is done by the transparent front part(cornea)
是前部的透明区 角膜
while the rest (1/3rd) is done by the lens.
剩下的1/3由晶状体完成
So, while treating these patients
治疗近视眼时
we have to decrease the focusing power of the eye
必须减弱聚焦能力
so that image is formed on the retina instead of in front of it.
让视网膜前面的图像重新回到视网膜上
This can be done by using either a diverging lens like
这就可以用凹透镜 例如
Glasses
眼镜
Contact lenses
隐形眼镜
Or some surgical procedure
手术
SURGICAL TREATMENT
外科治疗方法
Flattening the central part of cornea.
把角膜的中心部分压扁
This include different methods
有不同的方法
that were changed and advanced depending upon reduction of side
具体用哪种 取决于副作用的大小
effects and recovery time and improvement of degree of vision.
恢复时间 视力恢复程度
The surgeries included in this category are
手术分以下几种
Radial keratotomy
射线角膜切开术
Photorefractive keratectomy
激光光学角膜切削术
LASEK: laser epithelial keratomileusis
LASEK:准分子激光上皮下角膜磨镶术
LASIK: Laser In-situ Keratomileusis:
LASIK:准分子激光原地角膜消除术
Other Surgical Treatment options are:
还有其他手术选择:
Lens extraction
晶状体摘除术
Contact lens implantation
隐形眼镜植入术

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