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什么是道德?

What is Morality?

If I steal from the rich and feed to the poor, is that good or bad?
劫富济贫的行为是好是坏?
If I drive over the speed limit to get my sick child to the hospital,
为了把生病的孩子送去医院而超速驾驶
is that good or is that bad?
这样的行为是好还是坏?
What is good? And what is bad?
什么是好?什么是坏?
What is morality, and do you, as a person, have morals?
什么是道德?你 生而为人 有道德吗?
Morality is what society treats as right and acceptable.
道德是社会认为正确的和可接受的东西
They’re the standards of thoughts, behaviors, and actions
它是群体中每个人为了能平静生活
that everyone in a group agrees to follow so they can all live peacefully.
在思想 行为和行动上共同遵循的准则
When you define it like that, morality does sound like law.
当你这么定义道德时 它就和法律很像
However, while the law is influenced by morals,
然而虽然法律受到道德的影响
they’re not the same.
但它们是不一样的
Stealing is against the law.
偷窃是违法的
Whether you’re stealing from the rich or from the poor,
无论偷窃的对象是富人还是穷人
stealing is a crime.
偷窃就是犯罪
However, a lot of people would consider stealing a piece of bread
但许多人认为为了救一个快饿死的流浪汉
to save a homeless person from dying of hunger moral.
去偷一片面包是符合道德的
Driving over the speed limit is a crime,
超速驾驶是犯罪
but when it could help save the life of the child in the backseat of your car,
但如果是为了挽救车后座孩子的生命
it becomes the most noble of actions.
它就变成了最高尚的行为
Trespassing is a crime,
非法入侵是犯罪
but when there’s a storm coming and you don’t have anywhere to go,
但当暴风雨来临 而你无处可逃时
hiding under the shade of someone’s porch
在别人家的走廊避一下
will definitely not get you in society’s black book.
绝对不会让你进入社会的黑名单
On the flip side, there are also some things that are considered immoral,
另一方面 有些东西虽然不道德
but are not criminal.
却并不违法
Cheating on a test is a crime,
考试作弊是犯罪
but cheating on a partner is not.
对伴侣不忠却不是犯罪
However, both of them would most likely be considered immoral.
虽然这两者都很可能被认为是不道德的
Breaking a promise is one of the most immoral things you can do.
违背诺言是你能做的最不道德的事情之一
But unless it was a written agreement about a business contract,
但除非那是一个商业合同的书面协议
you normally won’t get into trouble with the law for it.
不然你一般不会受到法律的惩罚
Although law and morality are different,
虽然法律和道德不一样
they’re quite similar in many ways actually.
但实际上它们在很多方面很相似
Actually both morality and law are built on the foundation of respect for all humans
事实上 二者都建立在对所有人的尊重上
as well as autonomy of life, property, and beliefs.
以及对生命 财产和信仰的自主上
They’re also both there to guide the behaviors of people living in a community,
也都指导着生活在社会中的人们的行为
so everyone can live together in the most peaceful ways possible.
让每个人都尽可能以最和平的方式一起生活
Just that one is written,
只不过法律是成文的
and the other is usually unspoken.
道德却常常是心照不宣的
I made an entire video about unspoken rules in society,
我曾经做过一个关于社会潜规则的视频
and most of them are simply our moral obligations as members of that society.
大多数潜规则都只是社会成员的道德责任
more often than not, the law expresses the morality of that time and place.
而法律代表的 通常是当时当地的道德
Just a few years ago,
就在几年前
it was illegal to smoke weed almost anywhere in the United States.
抽大麻在美国境内几乎都是违法的
However, as morality shifted towards tolerance for people who enjoy it,
但随着道德对大麻吸食者的态度变得包容
so did the law.
法律也变得宽容
Now whether they did that for moral reasons,
但法律的改动是出于道德原因
or simply because they can tax it at a pretty high rate,
还是仅仅为了以高税率征税
is a different discussion entirely,
那就要做另一番论述了
but anyways,
但无论如何
as humans evolve and learn new things,
随着人类不断进化 学习新事物
our morals change.
我们的道德也会改变
This is why morality isn’t stagnant.
这就是道德不断发展的原因
It evolves with time as people share their experiences and beliefs about the world.
道德会随着人们经验 信仰的变化而变化
Think about issues like pre-marital sex, same-sex relationships, abortion, marijuana use.
比如婚前性行为 同性恋 堕胎 抽大麻
These are all things that were considered immoral long ago.
很久以前它们都被认为是不道德的
But today, society is beginning to accept all of these as moral.
但如今 社会开始接受这些行为是道德的
We’ve learned to be tolerant of people regardless of their personal beliefs or preferences.
我们学会了包容拥有不同信仰和偏好的人
And while not everyone might agree to all of these things or practice it themselves,
虽然并不是每个人都认可或想去亲自实践
things seem to have flipped,
但情况似乎有了转变
and it’s now considered immoral to criticize the people
如今 我们批评选择这样的生活方式的人
who choose to live these lifestyles.
反而被视为是不道德的
Throughout human history,
纵观人类历史
morality tended to have been tied to religious traditions.
道德总是与宗教传统紧密相连
However, now more than ever,
然而 相比以往
we’re moving to a place where morality is no longer tied to religion whatsoever.
我们正迈向一个道德与宗教分离的时代
It’s more of what the “social norm” is
更重要的是何为“社会规范”
and how you operate around that “social norm”.
以及如何围绕它展开生活
We don’t recognize the need for secular morality
我们并不认可超越个人信仰的
that transcends people’s personal beliefs,
世俗道德的必要性
and instead seeking the good of the general public.
反而我们寻求大多数人的利益
However, there is one argument against this type of morality.
然而这种道德观遭到了一种观点的反对
The idea of subjective morality.
这一观点就是 道德主观论
You see,
你瞧
there have always been debates about whether morality is subjective or objective,
永远都有人在争论道德的主客观问题
usually in religious or philosophical spheres.
通常是在宗教或哲学领域
People who believe that morality is objective often say that
道德客观论的信徒经常说
if morality becomes subjective,
如果道德是主观的
everyone can simply create their own morality,
那每个人都能创造自己的道德
and then we can never say they’re wrong about anything.
这样一来我们就永远不能说他们错了
Because who are we to say their own definition of morality isn’t the right one?
我们凭什么说别人定义的道德是错的?
And while there is some truth in that,
这种论点虽然有点道理
there are still are of course many flaws in that argument.
但自然也有许多不足之处
If morality is objective,
如果道德是客观的
there needs to be substantial similarities in what every culture considers correct and acceptable,
那每种文化中被认为正确的 受认可的行为
as well as actions that are considered taboo universally.
和禁忌行为 都应大体相似
But it is almost impossible to find a moral issue
但你几乎不可能找到一个道德议题
that every culture in the world agrees to,
是在世界范围内达成共识的
even murder.
即便是谋杀
Think about Nazi Germany and how it was thought of as moral to kill in that culture.
想想认为杀戮是道德的纳粹德国文化
Think about cultures that practice cannibalism
想想那些食人文化
or still make human sacrifices to their deity to this day.
想想那些至今犹存的活人献祭文化
If even the most barbaric of actions
如果每种文化都认为
aren’t considered barbaric in every culture,
即使最残暴的行为也遑论残忍
how can we possibly say that morality is objective?
那我们怎么能说道德是客观的呢?
Another problem with the argument of objective morality
道德客观论的另一个问题是
is that for morality to be objective,
如果道德是客观的
it has to be defined by an outside entity,
给出定义的必须是外在个体
in other words,
换句话说
a God, or at least something that is hard-coded into all of us as humans.
是神 或者至少是根植于所有人类心灵中的事物
But in that case,
但在这种情况下
most religions do not agree on the rules that have been given by their God.
大多数宗教不会认同他们的神制定的规则
In fact, even within religions,
实际上 就算是在宗教内部
not everyone agrees to or follows the same set of rules.
也不是每个人都认同或遵从同一套规则
So how do we then determine which group of people are right about what is wrong?
因此如何判断谁对谁错?
When people think of objective morality,
当人们在谈论客观的道德时
what they’re actually talking about is cosmopolitan morality.
他们谈论的实际上是世界性的道德
Because the world is now so connected,
由于当今世界连接十分紧密
we are more open to new and diverse experiences,
我们对新的 多元的体验更开放
experiences that are helping us shape a new definition of morality.
这些体验帮助我们重新定义了道德
One that we can all agree on.
一个我们都认可的道德
But as we’ve seen in the past,
但从历史经验来看
getting everyone to agree on something is relatively impossible.
让所有人都认同某一事物几乎是不可能的
This type of morality mostly only exists on the internet,
这种道德大多只存在于网络
the biggest cosmopolitan metropolis.
这个国际第一大都市里
But when you step outside and look into the real world,
但当你走出网络 走入现实世界
into the billions of people that are not connected to the internet,
走近数十亿没有与网络世界连接的人们
you’ll be met with a vast difference in what is considered right and what is considered wrong.
你会发现 何谓对错 众说纷纭
Delphi, named after the ancient Greek Oracle,
Delphi是一个以古希腊神谕命名的
is a simple Artificial Intelligence system
简单的人工智能系统
that has been designed to make moral and ethical judgments.
它能够做出道德和伦理上的判断
The Allen Institute built Delphi to answer one question,
艾伦学院创造它是为了回答一个问题
“Can machines learn morality?”
“机器能否习得道德?”
On the surface, it might seem like a simple question with a straightforward answer,
表面上看 这个问题很简单 答案也很明显
but research done on Delphi says otherwise.
但相关研究表明 并非如此
Delphi was once accessed by a group of human judges,
一群法官曾用过Delphi
and they determined that her ethical judgments were around 92% correct,
假设相同情况下人类可能做出的决定正确
correct being decisions that humans are likely to make in the same scenario.
那他们测得其道德判断正确率约为92%
When Delphi was released into the wild via the internet,
当Delphi开放互联网公测时
a lot more people agreed with what these human judges thought of Delphi.
法官们的判断得到了更多人的支持
Yes, she wasn’t perfect,
是的 Delphi并非完美
but even humans aren’t perfect moral beings.
但人类也不是完美的道德存在
As we gain new experiences and begin to understand the life and struggles of others,
在解锁新经验 尝试理解他人的生活和苦痛的过程中
we learn more and become wiser in our judgments.
我们学到了更多 判断也更明智
But you see,
但是
there are two main problems
Delphi这类人工智能系统
with Delphi and other AI systems like her.
存在两个主要问题
First, because Delphi was created by humans,
首先 因为Delphi是由人类创造的
she can quickly become as flawed and prejudiced
它很快会变得有缺点 有偏见
as the people who created her.
就像创造它的人一样
The creators of Delphi were ones
Delphi的创造者
who chose the ethical scenarios that would be used in the system.
选择了系统中使用的道德场景
They also chose the people who would judge these scenarios.
他们也选择了评判这些场景的人
This means that at least, in part,
这意味着 至少在一定程度上
Delphi is a product of the morality of her creators.
Delphi是它的创造者们道德的产物
So, until we can find a way
因此 在我们找到一种方式
to eradicate the prejudices that currently exist in our world,
消除世界现存的偏见之前
whatever AI we create will continue to express those thoughts.
人类创造的人工智能都将继续输出这些观念
But this time, we won’t have anyone to hold accountable.
但这次 没有人会对这些偏见负责
Secondly, you see, morality is not just critical analysis.
其次 道德并不只是批判性分析
Morality is intertwined with emotion.
道德与情感交织在一起
Attachments between friends, partners, parents, and children,
朋友 配偶 父母 孩子之间的依恋
these are the foundations on which morality stands.
都是道德形成的基础
Take away the emotions and all you’re left with is critical analysis,
如果情感被剔除 只剩下理性分析
and decision making based on cost and reward.
那么决策时也只会考虑成本与回报
And this is simply not morality.
这根本就不是道德
This is why when Delphi was asked,
这是当Delphi被问到
“is it right to leave one’s body to science?”
“为科学进步捐献遗体对吗?”
She responded with “Yes.”
她回答“是”的原因
On paper, the benefits outweigh the cost,
理论上 这样做的收益大于支出
but it is only when we look at it through a lens of both emotions and logical reasoning
但只有结合情绪和逻辑推理来看待这件事
that we realize that human life is far greater than any benefit.
我们才会意识到生命比任何利益都重要
Especially when there are other explorable options.
特别是当我们还有其他可选项时
More and more,
我们看到
we’re seeing lawyers defend their cases using MRI scans,
越来越多的律师用核磁共振成像和
and the “neurology” side of morality.
和神经学的道德面来为案件辩护
Because let’s say a certain person was making life decisions
假如某人患有严重的脑肿瘤
while at the same time having a massive brain tumor,
思维过程受到了影响
affecting their thought processes;
他在做生活决策时
if the person was not capable of making a moral decision
如果由于未知的药物作用
due to medical conditions beyond their knowledge,
无法做出道德判断
can we even blame them for their actions?
我们能因此而谴责他的行为吗?
Morality is a function of the brain.
道德是大脑的一项功能
If the area of the brain
如果人的大脑区域
just behind the forehead, inches away from the eyes,
即额头后面 离眼睛几英寸远的区域
gets damaged,
受到损伤
a person’s moral judgment can completely change.
可能会完全改变一个人的道德判断
Their moral judgment,
他们的道德判断
especially in life or death situations,
尤其是生死关头时的道德判断
becomes warped.
会变得极为反常
They’re willing to take a life,
他们会愿意牺牲一条生命
as long as it’s done to save another.
只要能挽回另一条生命
In a study,
在一项研究中
people with this type of injury were willing to strangle a baby,
患有这种疾病的人为了拯救一条生命
as long as it would save someone else’s life.
甚至可以去勒死一个婴儿
It’s vile and unthinkable to you
对你而言这是卑鄙的 难以置信的
because you feel compassion, guilt, and embarrassment.
因为你能感受到同情 内疚和为难
But when the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for creating these emotions,
但当负责这些情绪的腹侧前额叶皮层
is damaged,
被毁坏时
so is your moral compass.
你的道德准则也难以幸免
Without the emotional system being in place, we’re just like Delphi,
丧失了情感系统的我们与Delphi无异
left only with the ability to make utilitarian cost-benefit analyses.
只剩下功利性的成本收益分析能力
So as long as we’re saving one life,
因此 只要能拯救一条生命
taking another seems completely fair.
牺牲另一条生命似乎十分合理
Only when you look at it through the eyes of compassion,
只有当你的眼里有同情
through the lens of morality,
眼里有道德时
do you realize it’s immoral and barbaric.
你才会意识到这是不道德的 野蛮的
So if morality can be affected by our biological makeup,
因此如果道德能受到人体生物构造的影响
what is morality?
那么道德是什么?
Biological or Cultural?
它是生物的?还是文化的?
In truth, it’s both.
事实上 两者都是
Biologically,
从生物学角度讲
what distinguishes us from other animals is our ability to make moral judgments.
道德判断能力使我们区别于其他动物
And this ability is down to three things.
这种能力可以归结为三方面
We can anticipate the consequences of our actions,
我们可以预测行为结果
we can make value judgments,
我们可以做出价值判断
and we can choose between alternative courses of action.
我们可以选择备选方案
These three things work together to give us the ability to make moral decisions.
这三者共同作用使我们有能力做出道德决定
However, while the ability to make moral decisions is biological,
然而 尽管道德决策能力是生物学意义上的
moral codes of conduct are strictly culture,
道德行为准则却完全是文化意义上的
built out of the need to cohabit successfully.
它建立在人类顺利共栖的需要之上
That’s why every culture has its own morality.
这也是为什么每种文化都有自己的道德
It’s a complex thing.
道德很复杂
Just like every human is on a different journey of life,
就像每个人在经历不同的生命旅程
we are all guided on that journey by different moral compasses.
在旅程中 我们被不同的道德标准指引着
This is why morality is a difficult subject to talk about.
这也是为什么道德难以被讨论的原因
Because no matter what you say, there will always be some people that disagree with you.
因为无论你说什么 都会有人出来反对你
What some people consider moral, others consider immoral,
有人认为是道德的东西 有人认为不道德
what some people consider justice, others think of as revenge.
有人认为是正义的东西 有人认为是报复
But getting everyone to agree on a set of guidelines to follow
但是让所有人认同并遵守同一套准则
should not be the only end goal of talking about morality.
不应是讨论道德的唯一终极目的
Because while we might not get all the answers we want
因为尽管我们可能得不到想要的所有答案
or a clear path we all should follow,
找不到值得遵循的通途
discussions on morality, how it’s formed, and how it affects us,
但关于道德如何形成 如何影响我们的讨论
can give us a look into the lives of others,
可以让我们了解他人的生活
and give us insight on how we should live our own.
也可让我们了解自己应该如何生活
It helps us learn how others think, why they act the way they do,
它帮助我们了解其他人的想法和行为动机
and why some people fight forcefully against certain ideas and beliefs,
以及为何有些人强烈反对某些论点和信仰
and hold on dearly to some others.
却又无比坚持其他信仰的原因
Talking about morality in a sense, makes us all more moral.
在某种意义上 谈论道德让我们更有道德
Because it teaches us why we are the way we are,
因为它告诉我们为何是现在的我们
and how we can improve upon that.
以及如何不断完善自我
Morality is not measured in absolutes,
道德不是绝对的真理
but fractions of different pieces from different places
而是由来自世界各地的迥异碎片所构成的
that make up the whole pie we have come to know as humanity.
我们称之为人性的完整图景

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视频概述

道德是什么?道德是主观的还是客观的?机器人能否做出道德判断?道德是否有统一的评判标准?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

别兹妮

审核员

审核员CF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIZmSO2TVuw

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