未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

什么是生命?死亡是真实的吗?

What Is Life? Is Death Real?

生命就是和死亡不同的事物,那究竟是不是呢?
Life is fundamentally different from dead stuff—or is it?
物理学家埃文·薛定谔这样来定义生命:
Physicist Erwin Schrödinger defined life this way:
活着的事物就是要避免衰退到无序和平衡。
Living things avoid decay into disorder and equilibrium.
这究竟是什么鬼?
What does this mean?
假设你下载的文件夹是宇宙,
Let’s pretend that your download folder is the universe.
开始的时候那很整齐,到后来会越来越乱。
It started orderly and got more and more chaotic over time.
通过引入能量,你可以让它有序和整洁。
By investing energy, you can create order and clean it up.
这就是生命致力所为。
This is what living things do.
但什么是生命?
But what is life?
在地球上,所有生命都由细胞构成。
Every living thing on this planet is made of cells.
一般细胞就是蛋白质组成的机器,它太小了,难以感受到什么
Basically, a cell is a protein-based robot too small to feel or experience anything.
它有我们所赋予生命的几个特点:
It has the properties we just assign to life:
它可以用一面墙使自己于外界隔开,这可以产生有序性;
it has a wall that separates it from the surroundings, creating order;
它可以自我控制并维持一个常态;
it regulates itself and maintains a constant state;
它为了生存而吃东西;
it eats stuff to stay alive;
它可以成长和发展;
it grows and develops;
它对外界有应激性;
it reacts to the environment;
它服从进化论;
and it’s subject to evolution;
它造就了它自己的绝大部分。
and it makes more of itself.
但是组成细胞的物质,都不是有生命的
But of all the stuff that makes up a cell, no part is alive.
物质之间相互产生化学反应,然后又形成
Stuff reacts chemically with other stuff, forming reactions
不断相互影响的反应
that start other reactions which start other reactions.
在每一个细胞中,每秒都有几百万次的反应发生
In a single cell, every second several million chemical reactions take place,
就像产生了复杂的交响乐
forming a complex orchestra.
一个细胞能产生几千种不同类型的蛋白质
A cell can build several thousand types of protein:
或很简单,或如机械一般复杂
some very simple, some complex micromachines.
想象一下,架着一辆每小时100公里的汽车,
Imagine driving a car at 100 km/h while constantly rebuilding every single
不断将你从街道上收集的东西组装起来
part of it with stuff you collect from the street.
这就像是细胞在做的一样
That is what cells do.
但是细胞的每一部分都不是活物;
But no part of the cell is alive; everything is dead matter
所有的物质以宇宙的法则在运动着
moved by the laws of the universe.
所以生命就是这些不断在发生的反应进程的集合体吗?
So is life the aggregate of all these reaction processes that are taking place?
最终,所有生命都会逝去
Eventually, every living thing will die.
整个进程的目标,
The goal of the whole process is to prevent this by producing new entities;
是保证DNA能产生新的个体
and by this, we mean DNA.
在某种意义上来说,生命就是携带遗传信息的个体
Life is, in a way, just a lot of stuff that carries genetic information around.
所有带有生命的东西都遵循进化论。
Every living thing is subject to evolution,
DNA在此周围产生了最好的物质,以便他能在这场游戏中继续下去
and the DNA that develops the best living thing around it will stay in the game.
所以,DNA就是生命吗?
So, is DNA life, then?
如果你把DNA分解,它确实是很复杂的分子物质
If you take DNA out of its hull, it certainly is a very complex molecule,
但是它本身并不能干什么
but it can’t do anything by itself.
这就是为什么病毒使得万物变得复杂
This is where viruses make everything more complicated.
病毒只是外壳包着的简单的RNA或DNA序列,
They are basically strings of RNA or DNA in a small hull
它们需要细胞才能发挥作用
and need cells to do something.
我们不确定能否把它们算作生命
We’re not sure if they count as living or dead.
地球上有2.25亿立方米的病毒
And still, there are 225,000,000 m³ of viruses on Earth.
它们才不在乎人类怎么看它们
They don’t seem to care what we think of them.
有的病毒甚至能感染死细胞并复活它们
There are even viruses that invade dead cells and reanimate them
以便他们能主宰细胞,这就使得它们更难被区分了
so they can be a host for them, which blurs the line even more.
还有线粒体
Or mitochondria.
他们是复杂细胞的能量工厂
They are the power plants of most complex cells and
他们原先只是寄生在比他们更大的细胞中的自由的细菌
were previously free living bacteria that entered a partnership with bigger cells.
它们仍然含有DNA,并且能够自己繁殖
They still have their own DNA and can multiply on their own, but
但他们不能再算做生命体。
they are not alive anymore; they are dead.
因此它们用自己的生命换取了DNA的留存
So they traded their own life for the survival of their DNA,
这也意味着,生命体可以进化成非生命体,
which means living things can evolve into dead things as long as it’s beneficial
只要这种变化有利于他们的遗传密码
to their genetic code.
因此可以说,生命或许就是延续自己存在的组织起来的信息
So, maybe life is information that manages to ensure its continued existence.
那么什么是AI(人工智能)?
But what about AI (artificial intelligence)?
最容易被接受的共识是,
By our most common definitions, we are very close to creating artificial life
我们能在计算机上创造出人工生命
in computers.
这只是技术发展的时间问题
It’s just a question of time before the technology we build gets there.
这并不是科学幻想。
And this is not science fiction, either;
许多人正在为此而努力
there are a lot of smart people actively working on this.
你可能会说那么计算机病毒也是生命体
You could already argue that computer viruses are alive.
额,好吧,那么到底什么是生命
Hm, okay. So what is life, then?
物质?进程?DNA?信息?
Things, processes, DNA, information?
很容易你就会迷糊
This got confusing very fast.
但有一件事可以肯定
One thing is for sure:
生命体与非生命体从根本上来说是不同的
the idea that life is fundamentally different from non-living things
因为它们包含其他的非物理元素
because they contain some non-physical element
或者说由其他不同的定理所管控着
or are governed by different principles than inanimate objects
而不是像非生命体一样越变越糟
turned out to be wrong.
在达尔文时代之前,人们划了一条线,把自己与其他生命体分开
Before Charles Darwin, humans drew a line between themselves and the rest
有些奇特的东西使得我们变得独特
of living things; there was something magical about us that made us special.
一旦我们决定接受我们跟其他生命体一样
Once we had to accept we are like every living being, a product of evolution,
根据进化论,我们划了另一条线
we drew a different line.
我们对电脑能干什么,生命是怎样运作的了解得越多
But the more we learn about what computers can do and how life works,
我们离制造一台能描述生命的机器就越近了
the closer we get to creating the first machine that fits our desciption of life,
我们对自己的印象也会离危险更近
the more our image of ourselves is in danger again.
这在不久的将来就会发生
And this will happen sooner or later.
那么,问题又来了:
And here’s another question for you:
如果宇宙万物都是由同一种物质组成
if everything in the universe is made of the same stuff,
是不是意味着宇宙万物都是死的?
does this mean everything in the universe is dead
或者说宇宙万物都是生命体?
or that everything in the universe is alive?
这只是一个复杂的问题吗?
That it’s just a question of complexity?
是否意味着我们永远不会死?
Does this mean we can never die
因为我们本来就不曾活过
because we were never alive in the first place?
是否我们并没有意识到生命和死亡只是两个不相干的命题?
Is life and death an irrelevant question and we haven’t noticed it yet?
是否我们其实是宇宙组成很重要的部分?
Is it possible we are much more part of the universe around us than we thought?
不要看着我们,我们并不能给你们提供答案
Don’t look at us; we don’t have any answers for you.
只是提出一个问题让你思考
Just questions for you to think about.
再之后,你可以思考这样的问题
After all, it’s thinking about questions like this that makes us feel alive
什么使我们感觉是活着的,什么使得我们很舒适
and gives us some comfort.
字幕来自Amara.org社区
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOCaacO8wus

相关推荐