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什么是智力?它从哪里开始? – 译学馆
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什么是智力?它从哪里开始?

What Is Intelligence? Where Does it Begin?

Humans are proud of a lot of things, from particle accelerators
从粒子加速器到诗歌 再到宠物小精灵
to poetry to Pokemon.
人类有许多引以为傲的东西
All of them made possible because of something humans value extremely highly:
它们的出现都是因为一种人类极其珍视的东西:
Intelligence.
智力
We think of intelligence as a trait like height or strength,
我们认为智力是一种个人特征 好比身高或力量
but when we try to define it, things get fuzzy.
当我们试图定义它时 事情就复杂了
In a nutshell, intelligence is a mechanism to solve problems.
简而言之 智力是一种解决问题的机制
Especially the problem of staying alive, which involves finding food and shelter,
特别是生存的问题 这包括寻找食物和住所
fighting sexual competitors, or fleeing from predators.
与对手争夺伴侣 或是逃离捕食者
Intelligence is not a single thing;
智力不是单一的东西
it includes the ability to gather knowledge, to learn, be creative,
它包括收集知识 学习东西 发挥创造性
form strategies, or engage in critical thinking.
形成策略或进行批判性思维的能力
It manifests itself in a huge variety of behaviors.
它表现在各种各样的行为中
From hardwired or instinct like reactions to different degrees of learning, to some sort of awareness.
从对不同程度学习的本能反应到某种意识
But not all scientists agree where it begins
但并非所有科学家都认同它的起源
or what even should count as intelligence.
或者人们对它的定义
To make this even more complicated,
更为复杂的是
intelligence is also connected to consciousness since awareness is helpful for problem-solving.
智力也与意识有关 因为意识有助于解决问题
But we’re exploring consciousness in other videos, so today we’ll leave it aside.
但我们有其他视频研究意识 今天就不讲它了
Okay,
好了
Intelligence isn’t exactly clear-cut,
智力并不是非常清晰的
so maybe we can think of it as more like a flexible set of skills:
所以也许我们可以把它看作一组灵活的技能:
A toolbox.
一个工具箱
Basic tools.
基本工具
The most basic tools in the intelligence toolbox are the ability
智力工具箱中最基本的工具是收集信息
to gather information, to save it, and to use it to learn.
保存信息和使用信息进行学习的能力
Information about the world is gathered through senses such as
我们通过视觉 听觉 嗅觉 触觉或味觉
vision, sound, smell, touch or taste,
等感官来收集世界信息
and helps us navigate and react to the external world appropriately.
并帮助我们正确地引导和应对外部世界
But living things also need to keep track of the state of their own bodies,
但是生物也需要跟踪它们自己身体的状态
monitoring things like hunger and fatigue.
监控饥饿和疲劳之类的事情
Information is the basis of action for all living things,
信息是所有生物行动的基础
and without it, you’re at the mercy of your surroundings,
没有它 你就会受周围环境的摆布
unable to react appropriately, or flexibly.
无法做出适当或灵活的反应
Information is much more powerful if we can keep and save it,
如果我们能保存信息 它的功能就会强大得多
so the second tool is memory.
所以第二个工具就是记忆力
Memory is the ability to save and recall information,
记忆力是保存和回忆信息的能力
so a living being doesn’t have to start from scratch every time it perceives something relevant.
因此 生物不必每次察觉到相关的事情就从头开始
Memories can be about events, places, and associations,
记忆可以与事件 地点和联想有关
but also behaviors like hunting or foraging methods.
也可以是狩猎或觅食等行为
Some of these, like flying,
其中一些行为 比如飞行
have to be repeated over and over until they’re mastered.
必须一遍一遍地重复 直到掌握为止
This is what we call learning,
这就是我们所说的学习
the process of putting together a sequence of thoughts or actions.
把一系列的想法或行动组合在一起的过程
Basically a string of repeatable behaviors that can be varied and adapted.
这基本上是一系列可重复的行为 可以改变和适应
These three tools enable seemingly stupid creatures
这三种工具使看似愚蠢的生物
to act in surprisingly intelligent ways.
能够以令人惊讶的智能方式行动
The acellular slime mold,
这种脱细胞黏液霉菌
which is basically just a single huge slimy cell,
基本上只是一个巨大的黏液细胞
shows behavior similar to an animal with a simple brain.
它表现出与大脑简单的动物类似的行为
When put in a maze with food at one end,
当它被放入一端有食物的迷宫中
the slime mold explores its surroundings,
粘液霉菌探索它的周围
and marks its path with slime trails,
并用粘液痕迹标记它的路径
sort of, smearing memories on the ground.
好比把记忆抹在地上
As it continues exploring, it avoids the marked pathways
当它继续探索时 它避开了标记的路径
and finds its way to the food.
找到了通往食物的路
Instead of blindly getting stuck in dead-ends,
黏菌不会盲目地陷入死胡同
the slime mold adapts its behavior to save time and effort.
而是调整自己的行为 以节省时间和精力
This behavior is hardwired,
这种行为是与生俱来的
and scientists can’t agree if that’s intelligent,
科学家们不能确定它是否是智力
although it does give the slime mold a certain advantage.
虽然它确实给黏菌带来了一定的优势
Bees are an example of more adaptive smart behavior.
蜜蜂更是智力行为的一个例子
Scientists trained bumblebees to move a colored ball into a goal post
科学家训练大黄蜂将一个彩色的球移动到球门柱上
for a sugar reward.
以糖作为奖励
Not only were the bees very skillful
这种行为并不蜜蜂天生就有的
at this behaviour, which isn’t natural to them,
它们不仅非常擅长这种行为
they got more efficient over time.
效率还一次比一次更高
When several balls were available, bees chose the ball that lay closest to the goal,
当有几个球可用时 蜜蜂会选择离球门最近的球
even if it was a different color than the ball they were trained with.
即使它的颜色和他们训练时用的球不同
For more challenging problems, we need even more flexibility:
对于更具挑战性的问题 我们需要更大的灵活性:
Fancier tools.
更高级的工具
Building on the basic tools,
在基本工具的基础上
more complex animals have a wider range of problems they can solve.
更复杂的动物可以解决更广泛的问题
They can memorize all kinds of associations, connections, and mechanical tricks.
他们可以记住各种联想 关联和机械技巧
We’ll call this tool “The Library of Knowledge”.
我们将这个工具称为“知识图书馆”
Take raccoons. Their favorite kind of food is human food.
以浣熊为例 他们最喜欢的食物是人类的食物
Their approach to getting hold of such treats
他们获得这种待遇的方法
depends upon an assortment of theoretical and practical skills,
源于各种理论和实践技能
that makes them master burglars,
这些技能使它们成为行窃高手
able to open windows or pick locks.
能够打开窗户或撬锁
In a study, raccoons were given boxes secured with different kinds of locks,
在一项研究中 人们把装了不同锁的盒子给浣熊
like latches, bolts, plugs, or push bars.
如插销 螺栓 插头或推杆
They needed less than 10 attempts
他们只需要尝试不到10次
to figure out how to open each box.
就能弄清楚如何打开每个盒子
Even when different locks were put together into increasingly difficult combinations
即使人们以越来越难的方式将各种锁组合起来
that had to be solved in the right order,
且必须按照正确的顺序解开
and with different amounts of strength.
所需的力量也各不相同
A year later, the raccoons still remembered how to open the boxes,
一年后 浣熊仍然记得如何打开箱子
and were as fast as when they had first solved the puzzle.
而且速度和它们第一次开锁时一样快
Beyond our library of associations and skills,
除了我们的联想和技能库之外
the most impressive tool in our box is creativity,
我们的工具箱里最令人印象深刻的工具是创造力
a sort of mental duct tape.
它就像是精神上的管道胶带
Being creative means producing something new
创造性意味着从看似无关的事物中
and valuable from apparently unrelated things.
创造出一些新的 有价值的东西
In the context of intelligence this means making new and unusual connections.
就智力而言 这意味着建立新的且不同寻常的联系
Pairing input with memories and skills,
将输入的信息与记忆和技能相结合
to come up with a unique solution to a problem.
想出解决问题的独特方法
In another raccoon study,
在另一项对浣熊的研究中
researchers showed the animals that
研究人员向这些动物展示
by dropping pebbles into a water tank,
通过将鹅卵石丢进水箱
they could raise the water level enough to reach a marshmallow floating at the top.
就可以使水位上升 直到足以够到浮在顶部的棉花糖
One raccoon came up with a much better solution:
一只浣熊想出了一个更好的解决方案:
it tipped the tub over.
它把水箱掀翻了
Another facet of creativity is applying a new resource to a task:
创造力的另一个方面是将新资源应用于一项任务:
Physical tools.
物理工具
Like primates that use sticks to fish for termites in trees,
就像灵长类动物在树上用棍子捕食白蚁
or some octopuses,
或者像一些章鱼
which assemble collected coconut shells around themselves
它们将收集到的椰壳聚集在自己周围
as a sort of portable armor to hide from enemies.
作为一种便携式盔甲来躲避敌人
Collecting materials for later use
收集材料供以后使用
is connected to an even more advanced dimension of problem-solving: Planning.
与解决问题的一个更高级的层面有关:计划
Planning means considering the activities required for a desired goal
计划意味着考虑预期目标所需的活动
and putting them together in a plan.
并将它们放在一个计划中
When unforeseen circumstances and new possibilities present themselves,
当不可预见的情况和新的可能性出现时
they need to be assessed according to whether they match the plan or not.
需要根据它们是否符合计划进行评估
An example of this intelligent behavior is hoarding food to eat it later.
这种聪明行为的一个例子就是储藏食物供以后食用
This is an instinctive behavior in squirrels.
这是松鼠的本能行为
But even though hiding food comes instinctively to them,
但即使它们会本能地把食物藏起来
they still need to use advanced thinking skills to make the best decisions.
它们仍需要使用高级的思考技能来做出最好的决策
Squirrels examine every nut
松鼠检查每一个坚果
and weigh the time and effort it would take to hide it,
并权衡隐藏它所需的时间和精力
against the benefits they would get from each one.
以及它将带来的好处
Damaged or low-fat nuts are eaten right away,
受损或低脂的坚果会立即被吃掉
while nuts that still need to ripen go on the stockpile.
而还未成熟的坚果则会被储藏起来
Squirrels also pretend to bury nuts when they feel watched.
当松鼠感到被监视时 它们也会假装埋坚果
These empty caches distract rivals
这些空的储藏室分散了对手的注意力
from their real treasure.
从而保护了真正的“宝藏”
This is pretty advanced strategizing
这是相当高级的策略
because to make a plan to distract someone else,
因为要制定一个计划来分散别人的注意力
you first have to be aware that
你首先必须意识到
there are others like you that want the same things.
还有其他像你一样的物种想要同样的东西
The more complex the problem, the more tools are needed in combination to solve it.
问题越复杂 需要组合的工具就越多
So the more tools there are,
因此 工具越多
the more flexibility a being has
一个生物就有越大的灵活性
to solve the challenges life throws at them.
来解决生活给他们带来的挑战
But even for complex problems,
但即使是对于复杂的问题
each animal’s individual situation is what counts.
每种动物的个体情况也很重要
Squirrels are omnivores that defend their territories fiercely.
松鼠是杂食动物 它们会凶猛地保卫自己的领土
For them, it makes sense to remember where there’s food in different locations
对它们来说 记住不同地方的食物是很重要的
and trick their enemies to improve their chances of survival.
同时还要欺骗敌人以提高它们的生存机会
Sheep don’t have any such refined tricks up their sleeve, but they don’t need to.
绵羊没有任何这样的诀窍 但它们也不需要
They are grazers and live in flocks.
它们是食草动物 成群生活
The skills relevant to them are social.
与它们相关的技能是社交技能
They recognize and remember many different sheep,
它们认识并记住许多不同的绵羊
and even humans for years;
甚至是人类长达多年
a completely different skill.
这是一种完全不同的技能
Evolving and retaining a complex set of
对它们来说 进化并保留一套
mental abilities they might never use would be
复杂且可能永远用不上的心智能力
a waste of resources for them.
是对资源的浪费
Humans went the opposite way
人类则相反
and invested in an unusually diverse intelligence toolkit.
他们“投资”了一个异常多样化的智能工具包
While this was helpful,
虽然这很有帮助
by accident we added another set of tools on top:
但我们无意中成功地添加了另一组工具:
Culture.
文化
No single person could ever build a space rocket or particle accelerator.
个人无法建造太空火箭或粒子加速器
But thanks to our ability to work together
但由于我们可以一起合作
and to share knowledge across generations,
并在几代人之间分享知识
we can overcome challenges beyond any single individual’s ability.
我们可以克服任何个人能力所无法克服的挑战
This allowed us to shape the planet to our liking.
这使我们可以按照自己的喜好来塑造这个星球
We also created new problems in the process:
在这个过程中 我们也创造了新的问题:
sudoku, tax forms, string theory.
数独 税务表格 弦理论
But also rapid climate change and antibiotic resistance.
而且还产生了快速的气候变化和抗生素抗药性
To solve these, we’ll need to look past short-term survival
要解决这些问题 我们需要回顾过去的短期生存方式
and think about the distant future.
并思考遥远的未来
We have the toolbox, we just need to use it.
我们有了工具箱 只要使用它就可以了
Speaking of tools for learning,
说到学习工具
we’ve heard from many teachers that are using our infographic posters in class.
我们听说许多老师在课堂上使用信息图海报
So we asked what would help them the most
因此 我们询问人们什么对他们帮助最大
and made an education edition for teachers, students, and everyone else.
并为老师 学生和其他所有人制作了一个教育版
They’re slightly larger posters about various things
它们是关于各种事物的稍大一点的海报
that we’ll expand over time.
我们会不断扩展其内容
From a periodic table, to a world map or the human body.
从元素周期表 到世界地图或人体
You can get them in our shop and support us if you want.
你可以在我们的商店里买到它们 你也可以支持我们
And let us know which poster topics you want
告诉我们你想要在你的房间或教室里
for your room or classroom.
张贴哪些海报主题
This video was part two of a three-part video series
这段视频是关于生活和宇宙的重要问题的
relating to big questions of life and the universe,
三集视频系列中的第二部分
made possible thanks to a grant from the Templeton World charity foundation.
感谢邓普顿世界慈善基金会的资助
You’ll find our sources and further reading in the video description.
你可以在视频中找到来源和并进一步阅读

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视频概述

本视频讲述了什么是智力,以及智力的好处等等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ck4RGeoHFko

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