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肺纤维化是什么

What is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)?

大家好 在本期的《健康速写》中 我们想和大家谈一谈
Hello, in this HealthSketch we want to talk to you about
特发性肺纤维化 或 “IPF”
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis or’IPF’.
“特发性”表明该病的病因不明
The word ’Idiopathic’ means the cause of the condition is unknown,
“肺部”意思是肺脏 “纤维化”意思是瘢痕形成
‘pulmonary’ means lungs and‘fibrosis’ means scarring.
因此 肺纤维化是进行性的 瘢痕肺形成的一种疾病
So IPF is a progressive, scarring lung condition,
病因尚不明确
the cause of which is not known.
虽然该疾病并不广为人知
Though the condition is not well known,
但全球已有五百万名患者
it affects around 5 million people worldwide
发病年龄一般在50岁以上
and it usually occurs after the age of 50.
虽然IPF没有明确的病因
While IPF has no known cause
但通常认为瘢痕化的发生
it is thought that there may be certain triggers
存在特定的诱发因素
that cause the scarring process to begin
例如 病毒感染 吸烟和胃酸逆流
such as: viral infections, smoking, and heartburn.
该病也有家族遗传性
It can also run in families.
虽然目前没有治愈的先例
There is no known cure as yet,
但IPF患者可以做一些事情来帮助自己
however there are things that people with IPF can do to help themselves.
那么 IPF是如何影响肺的呢?
So, how does IPF affect the lungs?
先来看一下肺的工作原理吧
First, let’s see how the lungs work.
当你吸气时
When you breathe in,
空气储存在叫做肺泡的细小气囊中
the air ends up in tiny air sacs called alveoli
在这里氧气进入血液 二氧化碳排出
where oxygen can move into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide gets taken out.
肺纤维化后
In pulmonary fibrosis,
纤维组织在这些气囊中反复增生
scar tissue builds up over time around these air sacs,
于是氧气越来越难进入体内
which makes it harder for oxygento move into the body
这会让你感觉呼吸较平时更为短促
This leaves you feeling moreshort of breath than usual.
该病主要的症状是 呼吸急促和持续性干咳
The main symptoms of this condition are breathlessness and a persistent dry cough
两者皆会随时间加重 患者难以进行日常活动
which both worsen over time,making daily activities harder.
随之而来的可能是疲乏无力 体重减轻
Tiredness, weakness, and weight loss may follow.
由于症状往往与其它常见的肺病相似
Diagnosing IPF can be difficult as itssymptoms are often similar
因此IPF难以诊断
to other more common lung conditions.
然而 如果你的医生从症状怀疑你患有IPF
However, if your doctor suspectsIPF from your symptoms,
你就会被转诊至一位专科医师
you should be referred to a specialist
进行进一步的检查 比如呼气实验
for further investigations, such as breathing tests,
做高分辨率的CT扫描
a high resolution CT scan,
可显示肺部非常精细的图像
which takes very detailed images of the lungs,
可用以诊断及观察病情
is used both for diagnosisand monitoring the condition
另一种检测是从你的鼻子或嘴巴
Another test involves passing a small camera
放入一个微型摄像机
through your nose or mouth
一直进入肺部 观察肺组织的形态或采样
and into your lungs to see what they look like or take a sample.
这就是“支气管镜检查”
This is called bronchoscopy
还有一种检查是在全身麻醉后进行一个小手术
Another test involves a small operationunder general anaesthetic
以取出一小块组织样本进行检验
to take a small sample of tissue for analysis,
称为肺部活检
which is called a lung biopsy.
可惜目前还没有能够治愈特发性肺纤维化的方法
Unfortunately, there is not yet a treatment that can cure idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,
但现有的药物可以帮助减轻症状
but there are now medications that can help to reduce the symptoms
同时延缓病情发展
and slow the progress of the condition.
新药正在研发中
Research into new drugs is ongoing.
研究表明 肺康复治疗有益于IPF患者
Pulmonary Rehabilitation has also been shownto benefit people with IPF.
这是一个程序化过程 包括低强度运动
This is a structured programme ofgentle exercises
有关病情和控制症状的最佳方法的宣传教育
and education about your condition and how best to manage the symptoms.
物理治疗师和专科护士可以
Physiotherapists and specialist nurses can
告诉你一些缓解呼吸困难的方法
show you techniques to reduce breathlessness.
如果你身体的血氧水平过低也可采用氧疗法
Oxygen therapy can be used if your body’s oxygen levels become too low,
可能只在干体力活时需要
perhaps needed only during physical activity
也可能在静息时也需要
or maybe while at rest too
身体状况适合进行主要器官移植的病人
A lung transplant can be an option for those
也可以做肺移植手术
physically fit enough to undergo major transplant surgery.
病情发展因人而异
The progress of the condition varieswidely in different people;
有些人的病情长期保持稳定
while some may have stable symptomsfor long periods,
有些则病情逐渐恶化 症状愈来愈严重
in others there is a gradual declinewith worsening symptoms.
再说到IPF的确诊问题 确诊通常很难
Coming to terms with a diagnosis of IPFis often difficult
而在病因尚不清楚的情况下就尤其困难了
and it is particularly hard as the cause of the condition is unclear
患病时感觉低落 焦虑或者抑郁是很正常的
It is common to feel low, anxious or depressed
但你可以和医生 顾问
and it can be helpful to talk about these feelings with your doctor, a counsellor,
及有相似的问题 经历和感觉的
or at a support group where there will be others
互助团体多多交流会大有益处
with similar questions, experiences and feelings.
其它人的支持有助于
Having the support of others can help
鼓励IPF患者尽力保持健康
to motivate people with IPF to stay as healthy as possible,
如 定期预约跟进治疗 遵医嘱服药
for example, by attending follow up appointments, taking medication as prescribed,
打流感和肺炎预防针
and being vaccinated against flu and pneumonia.
戒烟是很关键的
Stopping smoking is very important,
因为吸烟会损害肺部 加重IPF的症状
as smoking damages the lungs and worsensthe symptoms of IPF.
坚持体育运动
It’s also good to stay physically active
健康的饮食习惯对确保
and eating healthily canmake a significant difference
患者的身体获得所需的能量和营养物质来说很重要
by ensuring your body, gets theenergy and nutrients it needs.
这一期的《健康速写 》中我们分享了“特发性肺纤维化”
In this HealthSketch we’ve talked aboutIdiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis,
即肺部的疤痕化病变及相应的症状
the scarring process in the lungs,the resulting symptoms,
以及如何配合诊断并尽可能地保持健康
and how to cope with the diagnosis and stay as healthy as possible.
希望这期《健康速写》
We hope this HealthSketch has been
能对你和你身边的人有所帮助
helpful to you and those around you.
《健康速写》 健康你我他
HealthSketch. Health for all to see.

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视频概述

特发性肺纤维化的病理改变 临床表现 治疗方法

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfK9LPNj-Zo

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