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什么是印度教?

What Is Hinduism??

Hinduism, the religion of over a billion people,
印度教 拥有十亿多信徒
is the world’s oldest religion
是世界上最古老
and probably the most confusing one to non-Hindus.
也很可能是最让非印度教徒迷惑的宗教
Some say it isn’t even a religion, more a way of life.
有人认为算不上宗教 更像是一种生活方式
Hindus themselves call it Sanātana Dharma, the eternal tradition.
印度教称自身为永恒之道 即永恒的惯例
So what is Hinduism,
所以印度教是什么
does YOLO apply to them,
YOLO和它一样吗
and who is this elephant guy?
而且这个大象是什么?
Well, Let’s Find Out.
嗯 我们一起弄清楚
Hinduism is the world’s oldest active religion.
印度教是世界上最古老的活跃的宗教
It’s the result of the merging of the ancient Indus Valley Civilsation
源自于古印度河流文明间相互融合
and the nomads that came into India around 1500BC.
游牧民族大约在公元前1500年进入印度
Some scholars say it could even go back many more thousands of years,
一些学者声称甚至可以追溯到更早
but we won’t delve too deep into dates
但我们不会太过深入
because dates in Hinduism are very, very controversial.
因为印度教的历史很复杂
But one thing is certain. Hinduism is old,
但已知的是 印度教历史足够久
like, at least, 36 Betty White’s.
至少36个贝蒂·怀特那么久
Hinduism has been around for so long
印度教历史如此悠久
that it and the concept of India itself are inseparable.
以至于与印度的理念密不可分
Hindu and India even come from the same word.
Hindu与India甚至出自同一个词
Sanskrit was the ancient language of the Hindus,
梵语是印度教的古代语言
and the Sanskrit name for the Indus River is Sindhu.
梵语的名称来自印度河流Sindhu
The Ancient Persians who sat across the Indus
当时的古波斯人占据印度
tended to switch their S’s to H’s.
意欲把他们的S换成H
So Sindhu became Hindu.
所以Sindhu变成了Hindu
So the people living across the river became Hindus.
因此 临河的居民变成了印度教教徒
The Persians told the Greeks who dropped that not-very-Greek-like H,
波斯人给放弃不像希腊词的希腊人带来了H
stuck a very-Greek-like “ia” to the end and boom, India.
诞生了一个很希腊的词“ia”嘣 印度
Hinduism has a long long history.
印度教有很长的历史
But today we’ll be focusing on just the core beliefs of Hindus
现在我们只关注印度教中的基本信仰
because I don’t have the willpower to animate a 3 hour video.
因为我没意志力更新一个3小时长的视频
Hindus are a diverse group.
印度教是一个分散的组织
Some are strict, dedicating their lives to prayer,
一些人很严苛 奉献一生去祈祷
while others don’t believe in any gods
同时也有人并不信仰任何神
but still follow Hindu philosophy.
但依旧信仰印度教教义
To make things easier to understand,
为便于更好的理解
let’s break Hinduism down into 7 core beliefs.
可以将印度教分为七个核心信仰
So here’s my rap about the 7 Hindu beliefs…….
我会用rap介绍这七个信仰
You promise you weren’t gonna do the rap.
你要保证你不会跟着唱起来
Come on, you’re better than this, man.
你得做的更好 兄弟
Fine. Here’s the regular version then.
好吧 然后这是正常的版本
1. Belief in a One Universal Soul.
第一 信仰宇宙灵魂一体
Hindus believe in a Universal Soul known as Brahman.
印度教信仰婆罗门著名的宇宙灵魂一体
A formless, genderless, source of all reality.
无规则 无性别 是现实的来源
Brahman is the universe and the material that makes up the universe.
婆罗门即宇宙 且组成了整个宇宙
It’s a trippy concept.
这是一个模糊的概念
But think of Brahman as an ocean and everything
但是 把婆罗门想做海洋
else as drops propelling out of that ocean.
每滴水都会被排出海洋
Seperate for a time, but still the same thing.
不考虑时间 但仍是同一样东西
2. Belief in an immortal individual soul.
第二 信仰不死之魂
In Hinduism souls are known as Atman.
印度教以 我 著名
Actions of the soul while in a body have effects on that soul’s next life.
此生灵魂的行为能够影响来世的生活
When you die your soul moves to another new body.
当你离世 你的灵魂移到另一个身体
This is called transmigration.
这谓之 轮回
The kind of body the soul inhabits next is determined by karma.
这种灵魂的传递是由因缘决定
3. Belief in karma
第三 信仰业报
Karma is action,
因果业报是一种行为
usually good or bad actions that affect society.
通常指对社会好或坏的行为
For Hindus,karma actions in the past affect us today
对印度教来说 过去的因果影响现在
and our actions today affect our soul’s future.
我们的行为会影响我们灵魂的未来
4. Belief in Moksha
第四 信仰精神解脱
The goal in Hindu life is to somehow get back to Brahman.
印度教生活的目的是以某种方式回归婆罗门
If a Hindu can do this they will be freed from cycle of life and death.
如果一个人完成目标 便可摆脱生死轮回
This is called moksha.
这谓之 解脱
You can achieve moksha by realising your oneness with Brahman.
当你与婆罗门统一时 可实现解脱
How you realise this is up to you.
如何实现取决于你
For this reason Hindus pray “lead me from the unreal to the real.”
由此 印度教徒祈祷“将我从虚幻带至真实”
5. Belief in the Vedas
第五 信仰《吠陀经》
The Vedas are Hindu sacred books of knowledge.
《吠陀经》是印度教的神圣经典
There are four Vedas.
有四本《吠陀经》
Hindus believe that all forward divinely revealed to
印度教认为这四本书展示了
ancient Hindu sages will take a closer look at the Vedas in a while.
古代印度圣人对《吠陀经》的深入理解
6. Belief in cyclical time:
第六 信仰时间的回圈
For Hindus there are no beginnings or endings.
对于印度教 没有开端 没有结束
Time is series of cycles.
时间是一种循环
With each cycle containing four ages or yugas:
每一个轮回为四时期或四时代
Krita, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali.
圆满时代 三分时代 二分时代 争斗时代
Added together, the four yugas total about 4.32 million years.
补充一句 四个时代约432万年
At the end of each cycle,
在每一轮回的末尾
declining human morality lead to total destruction of reality.
人类道德的沦丧造成整个宇宙的毁灭
Hindus believe that we are in the 4th and final yuga, Kali.
印度教认为我们正处第四纪 争斗时
7. Belief in dharma:
第七 信仰达摩
Dharma is a difficult word to translate to English.
达摩很难用英语翻译
“Proper Behavior” is the best I could come up with.
“适当的行为”是我能想到最好的解释
Dharma maintains balance in the universe.
达摩维持宇宙平衡
As long as everything in the universe like animals, plants,
只要世间万物 如动物 植物
and humans follow their dharma,
还有人类信仰他们的达摩
then everything will be fine.
一切都会好起来
If they break from their dharma, things will to super not fine.
如果他们不信仰达摩 事情会变得不那么好
Each being has its own dharma.
每一种生物都有自己的达摩
A lion’s dharma is to kill and eat antelope.
狮子是杀掉和吃掉羚羊
A King’s dharma is to rule well.
王的达摩就是治理有方
A subscriber’s dharma is to smash that like button
你们就是点赞
and ring the notification bell.
设置提醒
For humans their specific dharma is
对于人类来说
usually based on their age and their caste.
特定的达摩通常基于时代和其社会地位
A old priest will have a different dharma than a young merchant for example.
老神父与年轻商人的教义就不同
So those are the 7 core beliefs of Hinduism.
因此共有七个印度教信仰
With them you can understand the Hindu mindset.
凭借此你可以理解印度教思想
Unlike Christianity or Islam,
不同于基督教或伊斯兰教
Hinduism is a non-prophet organisation.
印度教没有先知
There is no Jesus or Mohammed for Hindus.
没有上帝或穆罕默德
There is no Bible, Koran, or Torah.
没有圣经 古兰经 摩西五经
Instead they have a bunch
但是他们有大量的
and I mean a bunch of different sacred texts.
不同种类的神圣的经典
The 4 Vedas form the basis of Hindu faith.
四本《吠陀经》形成了印度教的基本信仰
So let’s take a look at them.
让我们来看看这四本书
1. Rig Veda:
第一 《梨俱吠陀》
The Rig Veda is a collection of songs that praise and discusses ideas
《梨俱吠陀》是一部诗歌集
like Truth, Reality, and The Universe.
赞扬并探讨真理 现实和宇宙
Along with discussion on war, weddings, and rituals.
也讨论战争 婚礼 葬礼
2. Yajur Veda:
第二《耶柔吠陀》
The Yajur Veda covers stuff such sacrificial rites and rituals.
《耶柔吠陀》包括祭祀仪式和葬礼
3. The Sama Veda:
第三 《娑摩吠陀》
Sama literally means “sweet song that destroys sorrow.”
《娑摩吠陀》字面意思为 吟咏悲伤的赞歌
It is mostly songs dedicated to praising gods.
大部分是用来歌咏神明
It’s different than the rest because it is set to music.
和其他吠陀不同 因为它是用来演唱的
4. Atharva Veda:
第四 《阿闼婆吠陀》
The Atharva Veda is my favourite one!
《阿闼婆吠陀》是我的最爱
Do you want to curse your enemies and charm that special someone?
你想诅咒敌人 为某人祈福吗?
Maybe learn to invoke rain or discover herbal medicine along with tips on warfare.
学习求雨或在战争中发现草药和根
Like how to make poison arrows!
例如如何制作带毒的箭!
this Veda has you covered along.
《阿闼婆吠陀》包含很多东西
Along with a bunch of charms and curses.
大量的歌颂与咒骂
It even has a curse against cursers:
甚至还有对诅咒者的诅咒
“Avoid us, O curse, as a burning fire avoids a lake!
“如烈火防水般保护我们不受O的诅咒!
Strike here him that curses us,
如闪电击树般
as the lightning of heaven the tree!”
袭击诅咒我们的人!”
A link to the Atharva Veda is in the description
简介有《阿闼婆吠陀》的链接
just in case you need a spell get a wife or
以防你需要咒语得到一位妻子
another to banish pigeons from your presence.
或别的东西来把鸽子从你面前赶走
After the Vedas come to Upanishads
《吠陀经》后面是《奥义书》
which are like a sequel that
类似于《吠陀经》续集
makes the original make much more sense.
让《吠陀经》更合理
They were probably written down between 800BC and 500BC.
奥义书约在公元前800年-500年被创作
During a time when some Hindus started to question the Vedas.
在印度教开始质疑《吠陀经》的时期里
Their ideas became the Upanishads.
其产生的想法变成了《奥义书》
The Upanishads are books on philosophy.
《奥义书》是有关哲学的经典
Like we would expect for Plato or Aristotle.
例如我们对柏拉图或亚里士多德的期望
They’re all about questioning, doubt, debate,
他们都是关于质疑 怀疑 争辩
and finding the answers to life’s difficult questions.
并且找到生活困难之题的解答
A theme in the Uphanishads is that people are not their minds,
《奥义书》主旨是人不等同于其思维
or bodies, or egos but their Atman.
或肉体 或自我意识 而是他们的灵魂
Your soul is you, everything else is unreal and temporary.
你的灵魂是你 一切都是虚假暂时的
After the holy texts like the Vedas and Upanishads
在《吠陀经》和《奥义书》之后
are other less divine but still important texts.
其他的没有那么神圣但是依旧很重要
These include the stuff like the Puranas, Bhagavad Gita,
包括《印度史诗》《薄伽梵歌》
and the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
《罗摩传》和《摩诃婆罗多》
The Puranas are like encyclopedias of Hindu beliefs.
《印度史诗》像是印度信仰的百科全书
There are 18 well-known puranas.
这是18条著名的印度史诗
The Puranas cover things from yoga, to army organisation,
内容包括瑜伽到军事组织
to taxation, the caste system, hell, gods and everything in between.
到税收 种姓制度 地狱 神和其间的一切
The Bhagavad Gita, Gita for short, is one of Hinduism most important texts.
《薄伽梵歌》 是印度教最重要的内容
The Gita takes place on a battlefield
这本书背景为战场上
where Arjuna a great warrior refuses to fight.
一位伟大的战士 阿朱那 拒绝作战
Lord krishna steps in to urge a unit to fight
克利须那神进一步催促其战斗
and their discussion covers things such as dharma
他们讨论了很多事情 例如达摩
and how to live your best life.
及如何过好生活
Arjuna eventually fought after Lord Krishna
在克利须那神的达摩真理下
taught him the truth about dharma.
阿朱那最终战斗
As a member of the warrior caste,
作为战士种姓成员之一
Arjuna’s dharma was to fight against evil.
阿朱那的达摩就是与邪恶作斗争
The lesson of the Gita is that everyone faces difficult choices
本书的教义是每个人都面临着艰难抉择
but they must act on them according to their dharma.
但是他们必须按自己的达摩来行动
No matter how unpleasant.
不论多么不快乐
Along with all these philosophical texts,
除了所有的哲学著作外
Hinduism also has two action packed epics.
印度教的还有两个史诗经典
The Ramayana and Mahabharata:
《罗摩衍那》和《摩呵婆罗多》
Ramayana, the earlier of the two epics, tells the story of Prince Rama.
《罗摩衍那》是较早的一部 讲述了罗摩的故事
In the epic, you find out about his 14-year exile,
在这部著作中 我们知道他被流放了14年
the abduction his wife Sita,
妻子悉多被劫走
his battle with the demon Ravana,
他与魔王罗波那的斗争
and his awesome monkey sidekick Hanuman.
和他的伙伴神猴哈奴曼
The second epic, the Mahabharata is the longest poem in the world.
第二部《摩诃婆罗多》是世界上最长的诗
5 times the length of the Bible
是《圣经》的5倍
and eight times the length of the Iliad and Odyssey combined it.
是《伊利亚特》和《奥德赛》加起来的8倍
It rivals any soap opera you’ve seen when it comes to drama.
可与你看过最戏剧性的肥皂剧相匹敌
Murder, betrayal, love, love-murder, and giant battles.
谋杀犯 背叛 爱情 情杀 战争
The Mahabharata has it all.
《摩诃婆罗多》全都有
The theme running throughout the Ramayana and Mahabharata is that
贯穿《罗摩衍那》和《摩诃婆罗多》的主题是
dharma must be followed for society to function.
达摩必须遵循社会来运行
In Hinduism, there a 4 goals a person should aim for to have a good life.
印度教中 一个人必须以四大夙愿为准才可拥有好生活
The first of these is dharma.
第一个是法
Followed by artha, the pursuit of prosperity and good reputation.
其次是利 追求财富和声名
Kama, pleasure both in body and mind.
欲望 满足身心愉悦
And moksha the release for the cycles of rebirth.
解脱 是为了循环和重生
Hindus should practice artha and kama
印度教必须用法去追寻
with dharma in order to attain moksha.
利和欲望 以求解脱
There are also six temptations Hindus should try hard to avoid.
印度人也需要避免六种诱惑
kama:lost and materialism
欲望 沉溺和物质主义
This kama is different from the good kama mentioned above.
这里的欲望不同于前面提及的善欲
Krodha: Anger
Krodha 愤怒
Lobha: Greed
Lobha 贪婪
Moha: Unrealistic attachment to things, people, and power
Moha 对不切实际的事 人和权利依恋
Mada: Pride
Mada 自大
Matsarya: Jealousy
Mastsrya 嫉妒
By following their dharma and avoiding these six temptations
通过追求内心的法 避免六种诱惑
a Hindu can break the cycle of rebirth
一个印度人便可打破重生的循环
and have their soul merge back into Brahman.
且实现梵我同一
But even though everything comes from Brahman
但即使万物生自婆罗门
who is the One real thing in Hinduism,
婆罗门是印度教唯一实际的东西
Hindus do have thousands of gods.
印度教信仰多神
So let’s take a look at some of them.
来看看其他的神吧
There is Brahma, the creator.
这是婆罗门 造物者
He created everything in the universe but he is not the universe itself.
他创造出宇宙万事万物 但他不是宇宙本身
Because that’s Brahman.
因为它是婆罗门
They aren’t the same thing.
两个东西不一样
That last letter changes a lot apparently.
后者明显变化很大
He has four heads.
他有四个头
The heads face each of the four directions,
每个头面朝不同方向
to represent the four Vedas which he created and the four yugas.
展示他创作的《吠陀经》和四世纪
He also holds a book, which represents knowledge.
他手持一本知识之书
Oh and he rides a giant swan, because he’s just that fancy.
他骑的是大天鹅 因为好看
His consort is Saraswati, the goddess of learning.
他的配偶是萨拉斯瓦蒂 知识女神
Vishnu, the Preserver is the second member of the Hindu Trinity.
毗湿奴 守护神 印度教第二位主神
He preserves the world created by Brahma until it is destroyed by Shiva.
他守护婆罗门创建的世界 直至被湿婆毁灭
He holds a discus,
他手持神盘
to cut down anyone that messed with his Dharma.
用来杀掉扰乱秩序的人
Along with a conch, which symbolizes victory and the five elements.
还有莲花 象征着胜利和五个要素
Vishnu has many avatars, such a Krishna or Rama,
毗湿奴有许多替身 像克利须那神或罗摩
who he uses to defend dharma on Earth.
他用来守护宇宙的达摩之道
and he rides the giant eagle Garuda.
他的坐骑是大鹰揭路荼
Vishnu has two consorts:
毗湿奴有两个配偶
the goddesses Lakshmi and Bhumi.
拉客西米和昔弥
Bhumi is the earth goddess
昔弥是大地女神
and Lakshmi is the goddess of good fortune and wealth.
拉克希米是吉祥天女或财富女神
Shiva, the Destroyer, is the third member of the Hindu Trinity.
湿婆 毁灭者 印度教第三位主神
It’s his job to destroy the universe in order to prepare for its renewal
他的任务是在每一次循环的世纪之末
at the end of each cycle of time.
破坏宇宙以求重生
The most identifiable of his features is his third eye,
最有特点的是他的第三只眼
which he almost always keeps closed.
总是闭着
If it does open and you’re in front of it you will have you face melted off.
如果在你面前将眼睁开 意味着你将融化
When not unmaking existence
当不毁灭世界的时候
Shiva enjoys rides on his bull named Nandi.
湿婆喜欢骑着他的公牛 南迪
At the end of the Kali Yuga, the fourth age of the world,
最后一个是伽利 世界的第四纪
Shiva performs a dance that destroys the universe.
湿婆展示毁灭的舞蹈
People have told me that my dance moves make them wish the world ended,
观众告诉我 我的舞蹈让他们希望宇宙毁灭
So me and Shiva have quite a lot in common.
所以我和湿婆有很多共同之处
Parvati and Sati are Shiva’s consorts.
帕尔瓦蒂和萨蒂是湿婆的配偶
Shiva also has two sons: Ganesha and Murugan.
湿婆有两个儿子 甘尼萨和穆鲁甘
Ganesha is worshipped as the remover of obstacles
甘尼萨被崇敬因为是障碍的摧毁者
and Murugan is the god of war.
穆鲁甘是战争神
Ganesha holds a special place in the hearts of Hindus,
甘尼萨在印度人心中有着特殊的地位
due to him being the remover of obstacles.
因为他是障碍的摧毁者
The elephant head is the obvious clue to identifying him.
认出他最具特点的线索是象头
He was actually born with a a human head
实际上 他出生时有一颗人类的头
but after Shiva cut that one off he had to make due with an elephant one.
但是因为大象头 湿婆砍掉了人头
If you’re Christian or Muslim
如果你是基督教徒或穆斯林教徒
you’re aware that your religion has a bunch of different denominations.
你会意识到你的宗教信仰和宗派的大不相同
Like Catholics and Protestants, Sunni and Shia,
像天主教和新教徒 逊尼派教徒和什叶派教徒
Hinduism has these too.
印度教徒也一样
Hindus developed four major denominations,
印度教形成了四个主要教派
some of which have their own subdivisions:
其中的一些形成了自己的子派
Vaishnavas primarily worship Vishnu
毗湿奴教徒主要崇敬毗湿奴
and Shaivas primarily worship Shiva and his sons.
湿婆教徒崇敬湿婆和他的儿子们
Smartas does follow sacred texts,
斯玛特遵循神圣的教义
like the Puranas and the Ramayana
像《印度史诗》和《罗摩衍那》
and Mahabharata rather than the Vedas.
和《摩诃婆罗多》而不是《吠陀经》
They worship five gods and goddesses:
他们崇敬五个男神和女神
Ganesha, Durga, Surya, Shiva,
甘尼萨 杜尔迦 苏利耶 湿婆
and a preferred avatar of Vishnu.
还有毗湿奴更喜欢的替身
Finally, Shaktas worship the goddess Devi.
性力派教徒崇敬提毗
Shaktas see Devi as the ultimate and eternal reality.
性力派教徒认为提毗是终极和永恒的世界
Like a feminine Brahman.
像女性婆罗门教
Even though there are all these variations and more,
即使他们有很多不同之处
the core beliefs remain mostly the same.
但是核心信仰大部分是一致的
Hindus believe that dharma keeps the balance in the universe.
印度教认为达摩维持宇宙平衡
If the scales between good and evil start tipping towards evil
如果善恶的天平倾向恶
then something needs to intervene to fix the universe’s dharma.
那么就需要靠宇宙的达摩来阻止邪恶
This divine intervention is known as an avatar.
替身是神参与的干涉行为
The literal meaning of the word avatar is “descent”
字面上的替换词为“除去”.
Avatars are gods that descend to earth to intervene
替身是神用来下凡干预
whenever help is needed to restore dharma.
无论何时重建达摩的请求
For example,when the Earth was dragged underneath the ocean
例如 当地面沉到海洋下
Vishnu descended to Earth as the avatar Varaha,
毗湿奴作为替身瓦拉哈下凡
a boar,and dragged the Earth back out.
是一头野猪 然后把地面拉回
In other cases Vishnu was born on Earth as an avatar,
其他情况下 毗湿奴作为替身下凡
like Rama or Krishna
像罗摩和克利须那神
where he spent his avatars life fixing Dharma
消耗替身的生命修补达摩之道
So the caste system
接下来是种姓制度
If you know only one thing about Hinduism,
如果你只知道印度教
this is probably it.
可能就是种姓制度
People see it as an oppressive system
人们将其视为压迫体制
that locks people in place based on their birth
基于人们的出生 把人们困在一个位置
and for a huge part of history that’s all it’s been,unfortunately
不幸的是 这是历史的一部分
Let’s do a quick explanation of what the caste system.
我们来简单解释一下种姓制度是什么
In Hinduism there are 4 castes
在印度教 有四种种姓
or classes that you can be born into.
或着是出生的阶层
Brahmin, the Priests
婆罗门 祭司
Kshatriyas, the Warriors
刹帝利 战士
Vaishyas, the Traders
吠舍 经商者
and Shudras, the Manual labourers
首陀罗 劳动者
The main basis for the caste system
种姓制度的理念
can be found in the Bhagavad Gita and Rig Veda.
可在《薄伽梵歌》和《梨俱吠陀》中找到
Krishna says in the Gita
克利须那神在《梨俱吠陀》中说到
“I have created a fourfold system
“为了区分人的品行和职业
in order to distinguish among most qualities and functions.”
我创立了四种种姓”
The Rig Veda also refers to the four castes.
《梨俱吠陀》也涉及到四种种姓
It says humans were created from parts of the god Purusha.
据说人来自普鲁沙的不同部位
The Brahmin from his face, the kshatriya his arms,
头部为婆罗门 双臂为刹帝利
the Vaishya his thighs, and the Shudra his feet.
双腿为吠舍 双脚为首陀罗
This system was supposed to assign people functions based on their abilities.
种姓制应当按照人的能力分配职责
Not birth.
而不是出生
If someone had to qualities of a Brahmin or Vaishya they could fill those roles.
某人必须具备婆罗门和刹帝利的品质 才可符合职位
The Gita didn’t restrict movement among castes
《梨俱吠陀》没有限制种姓流动
and the caste system functioned as intended for a while.
和起到暂时作用的种姓制度
Until a document known as the “laws of Manu”
直到众所周知的《摩努法典》的出现
came about around the fifth century BC.
约在公元前5世纪
Popularly referred to as the Manu Smrti,
一般指的是《摩奴法论》
they created hard rules for Hindu life.
严格规定印度人的生活
Two rules presented in it contributed to the way the caste system turned out.
两个规则展示了其对种姓制出现方式的贡献
Manu states that the Brahmin were the lords of all castes.
摩奴说婆罗门是所有种姓的王
and he forbid moving among the castes.
并且禁止种姓之间进行流动
The caste you’re born into was now the caste you’re stuck in.
你出生的种姓是什么你就是什么
If you give humans a hierarchy they’ll exploit it and things go sour pretty quickly.
如果是等级制度 会产生剥削 也会很快腐败
As time passed, Hindus began thinking in terms of upper and lower castes.
随着时间流逝 印度人根据上层种姓和下层种姓来思考
Soon cleaning toilets, tanning leather,
后来扫厕所 制皮革
and dealing with meat products were thought to be “impure”.
处理肉制品被认为是肮脏的事
The people doing those jobs became untouchables,
做这些工作的被认为是贱民
the lowest of the low, a people without caste.
他们在最下面的一层 没有种姓
The rest is history.
剩下的是历史
The modern world has brought changes though.
尽管现代化带来了一些改变
Now Hindus mix freely,
现在 印度教徒自由混合
while working together in the same businesses,
同时也一起工作
attending the same schools, and generally just living together.
上同一所学校 大体上也住在一块
But when it comes to marriage many Hindus still stick to their own caste.
但提及婚姻 印度教徒依旧坚持种姓制度
But this too is changing and on Hindu dating websites
但印度婚姻网上正在发生改变
you can see people list a non-preference for caste.
你可以看到人们没有种姓优先的要求
It’ll say that caste no bar.
也就是说种姓不是障碍
So those are the basics of Hinduism.
以上就是印度教基本的信仰
It isn’t even close to covering everything.
甚至还没讲完
One video simply can’t do it.
仅一条视频无法办到
Hinduism is too diverse, too deep,
印度教如此多元化 如此深奥
and means too many different things to different people.
对不同的人来说意义如此不同
But learning even the basics of this fascinating
但是学习令人感兴趣的理念
and ancient religion gives us an insight into
和古代宗教
the world view of over a billion people
让我们能够深入超一亿人的信仰
and I hope you enjoyed it.
我希望你能喜欢它
You can find all the sources used in the description below.
你可以在下方简介中找到所有引用资料的来源
If you liked this content please subscribe.
如果你喜欢此内容 请订阅
If you’re interested in supporting the channel
如果你有兴趣支持该频道
there are links to my t-shirt store
这是T恤店铺的链接
and for Patreon also in the description.
也请支持众筹平台
Thanks a lot for watching
感谢观看

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视频概述

介绍印度教的来源,七大信仰,信仰的三大主神及其他神,种姓制度

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xlBEEuYIWwY

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