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什么是冻伤? – 译学馆
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什么是冻伤?

What is Freezer Burn?

你曾经留意过肉类,蔬菜,冰激凌被留在冰箱里太长时间
Have you ever noticed that meat or vegetables or ice cream left too long in the freezer
它们的表面会长出一层霜冻的冰?并且当它们被吃的时候,会有种干涩和黏糊的味道?
develop a layer of frosty ice on their surface? And when eaten, they’re kind of dry and icky?
这就是冻伤,这种情况发生是因为冰在冷冻的食物上升华。更确切地说
This is freezer burn, and it happens because ice in the frozen food sublimates – that is,
冰冻的水直接从固态变为气态,而不是先融化再蒸发。
the water changes directly from a solid to a gas rather than first melting and then evaporating.
不像常规的霜(或者叫白霜),由水蒸发形成
Unlike regular frost (also called "hoar frost"), which forms when water vapor that’s already
在某个暴露于空气的低温物体表面冻结成晶体,
in the air freezes into crystals on top of something cold, the frost in freezer burn
冻伤中的冰霜来自食物内部冻结的水份。这就是为什么冻伤发生在面粉和坚果上的机率
comes from frozen water in the food itself. That’s why freezer burn happens less to flour
比蔬菜、肉类、冰激凌这些含水量多的食物要小。而根本的做法是
and nuts than to vegetables and meat and ice cream, which contain more water. And the ultimate
水分从食物内部转移到外部,使食物干燥
effect is that water is transferred from inside the food to outside the food, leaving it dry
结霜,但仍保持着食用安全。你主要是冻干它,即使
and frosty, but still safe to eat. You’re basically freeze-drying it, although the food
食物可能会氧化变褐。
might also oxidize and turn brown.
当然,冰本身会升华,这是冰块随时间
Of course, ice by itself can also sublimate, which is why ice cubes shrink in their trays
收缩在冰格里的原因。冷冻库内壁上的冰霜部分来自
over time. And the frost on the walls of a freezer comes partly from water that was once
里面的冰块和食物中的水分。
in ice cubes and food in the freezer.
升华很容易发生在干燥的空气中,当冰处于化水的临界点的时候
Sublimation happens more easily when the air is dry and when the ice is close to the melting
所以你可以通过保持冰箱的冷冻温度均匀
point of water, so you can avoid having your food get freezer burn by keeping your freezer
和防止冰箱中的食物与外界空气接触来避免食物冻伤。例如
consistently cold and preventing air from contacting the food in it – for example, by
将食物密封在塑料保鲜袋中,排除气泡。
sealing food in plastic freezer bags without any air pockets.
另外,冻伤不只发生在冰箱冷冻库,也发生在自然环境中。在冰面上的霜花,
What’s more, freezer burn ISN’T just limited to freezers – it happens in nature, too. Frost-flowers
它们来自于,例如,从冰中产生的水蒸气升华物到了空气中,太冷而无法保持形态。无处置身地,蒸气沉积回地面成为冰冻茉莉花状,极端的升华物。
on sea ice, for example, form when water vapor sublimates from warm ice into air too coldto hold it. Homeless, the vapor deposits back onto the surface as icy lilies – sublime sublimation.

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