未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

发烧 是什么|第一部分

What is Fever? | Part 1

Approach to “Fever” Intro:
关于“发烧”的介绍
Fever, also called Pyrexia, is one of the most common presenting complaints in medical practice.
发烧也叫发热 是医学上最常见的病症之一
It is defined as a body temperature that is above the normal range (for that individual)
它被定义为体温超过个体的正常范围
without any physiological cause to it
但不包括生理原因所致
(e.g temperature raise due to exercise or menstrual cycle doesn’t count as fever).
如运动或月经引起的体温升高 都不算作发烧
This is usually above 38℃ recorded by thermometer
发烧时测出的体温通常会超过38℃
(in this case, oral and rectal temperature readings are more accurate than axillary temp).
口腔和直肠测温这时会比腋窝测温更为准确
The most important thing to keep in mind is that “fever” in it of itself is not a disease,
最重要的是记住“发烧”并不是一种疾病
but rather a symptom that indicates an underlying disease process.
而是一种揭露了潜在病变的症状
Mechanism of fever:
发烧原理
Body temperature is usually set to its normal range by the hypothalamus
体温通常由下丘脑控制在正常范围内
(which acts as a sort of thermostat).
下丘脑就像一个恒温器
When the body suffers from certain pathological processes (namely “inflammation”)
当身体受到某种病理过程 也就是炎症的折磨时
certain the chemicals are released by the body
身体会释放出对应的化学物质
(collectively called pyrogens, e.g of which is interleukin-2).
它们统称为热源 包括白细胞介素-2
Pyrogens set the thermoregulatory point of the hypothalamus to a higher temperature,
热源使得下丘脑的体温调节点升高
thus resulting in fever.
最终引起了发烧
The causes of fever can be divided into the broad categories of 1)
发烧的原因可以分为以下几类
Infections (which is the most common cause of pyrexia.
1 感染 它是最常见的引起发烧的原因
It can include bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infections),
包括细菌 病毒 真菌或寄生虫感染
2) Clots 3) Cancers,
2 血块 3 癌症
4) Auto Immune diseases, and 5) Miscellaneous
4 自身免疫性疾病 5 其他
(which can include things like heat stroke, medications, brain lesions and thyroid storm to name a few).
包括中暑 药物治疗 大脑损伤 甲状腺风暴等
Diagnosing the cause of fever:
发烧原因诊断
We have mentioned 5 categories of diseases that usually result in fever,
我们已经提到了5类引起发烧的原因
and each category consists of a multitude of possible diseases.
但每个类别又包含了许多其他可能的疾病
In order to narrow down our diagnosis,
为了缩小诊断范围
we need to do a thorough history and examination,
我们必须做病史追溯和全面检查
and request appropriate lab investigations where relevant.
并且需要相关的实验研究数据
Fever is usually accompanied by other symptoms as well
发烧通常伴有其他症状
which may guide the diagnosis of underlying disease.
这些症状能够引导对潜在疾病的诊断
Important questions to ask in history:
诊断时询问的重要问题
These can be broadly divided into 2 categories,
这些可以分成两类
1) General fever related, 2)Review of systems.
1 普通发烧相关 2 系统全面的检查
Fever specific questions include; the duration of fever,
发烧的具体问题包括 发烧的持续时间
the timing of the fever (what time of day is it more prominent),
发烧的时间点 即一天中最严重的时候
the character (is it remitting or relapsing),
发烧的性质 即缓解还是复发
Is it accompanied by chills or rigors?
是否伴随有寒颤
Is there night sweating?
晚上是否会出汗
Is there weight loss?
体重是否在下降
Is there pain anywhere?
有没有疼痛的地方
Review of systems is a systematic approach to identify accompanying symptoms in other body organs.
系统检查则是一种能够识别其他器官的伴随性症状的方法
This is especially important in identifying a possible focus of infection.
它对于识别可能的感染源尤为重要
Ask relevant questions pertaining to each organ system and move from head to toe:
从头到脚问一些关于每个器官系统的问题
so for example ask about headache, neck stiffness?
比如头痛 颈部僵硬
eye pain? skin rashes or itching?
眼睛疼痛 皮疹或瘙痒
runny nose, ear pain or discharge?
流鼻涕 耳朵痛 有无分泌物
Coughing, sputum, sore throat, pain on swallowing?
咳嗽 咳痰 喉咙痛 吞咽疼痛
Is there difficulty breathing or chest pain,
是否呼吸困难或胸痛
is there any abdominal pain?
有没有腹痛
Any change in bowel habits?
排便习惯是否改变
Is there any lymph node enlargement?
淋巴结有没有肿大
Any burning sensation while urinating?
排尿时有无灼烧感
Any discharge from genitals?
生殖器上是否有分泌物
Any recent injuries?
最近有没有受伤
Any muscle or bone pain?
是否有肌肉或骨骼疼痛
Any recent surgery?
最近是否进行过手术?
Your history will be directed further by the patients’ responses
你的诊断将由病人的反应所引导
and will probably start moving towards a probable diagnosis.
从而也许能够走向最终的诊断结果
Examine the relevant organ system in thorough detail.
全面细致地检查相关器官系统
You mainly need to decide which of the 5 categories does the disease belong to,
你需要判断它属于五类中的哪一类
and which organ system is likely affected.
以及哪一个器官可能会被影响
For example, acute fever with complaint of burning sensation during urination
例如 急性发烧伴随的小便灼热感
whereas chronic low grade fever with anemia and weight loss
而伴有贫血和体重下降的慢性低烧
might be indicating a hematological cancer.
可能是血液癌的表现
捐献并帮助我们普及免费先进的医学教育给每个人
想看更多类似视频请进入我们的脸书页面
让我们一起普及免费先进的医学教育给每个人 让所有人都能享受到最好的医疗设备

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本文介绍发烧机理、发烧原因及诊断时应该注意的地方。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

三顷

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oc7XLrKp-yA

相关推荐