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如何定义“假新闻” – 译学馆
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如何定义“假新闻”

What is Fake News?

You’ve probably heard a lot of people recently screaming and yelling about Fake News
你最近可能听到很多人在抱怨假新闻
Charges fly from all points on the political spectrum:
各大政党纷纷出来指责说
this story is mistaken — it’s Fake News;
这篇报道是错的 它是假新闻
that statement is incorrect — it’s Fake News.
那个声明是不正确的 它是假新闻
But to my mind, these arguments miss the point.
但在我看来 这些争论没有抓住要点
Mainstream American news is ALL fake
其实美国的主流新闻都是假的
because the major news outlets are so consistently biased toward the left
因为主流媒体一贯偏向左派
that whether any given story they report is factual or not,
以至于不论他们报道的内容是否真实
their overall reportage is essentially leftist propaganda.
他们的报道总体上都是左派宣传风格
You can complain about the right-wing slant of Fox News all you want,
你可以随心所欲地抱怨福克斯新闻的右翼倾向
but left-wing ABC, CBS, NBC, MSNBC and CNN
但像ABC CBS NBC MSNBC以及CNN等左翼媒体
have combined almost ten times the viewers.
拥有将近右翼媒体十倍的观众数
Look, the chief journalist at ABC
看 ABC的首席记者George Stephanopoulos
is former Clinton operative George Stephanopoulos;
就是前总统克林顿的下属
The president of CBS News is David Rhodes,
CBS的首席记者则是David Rhodes
the brother of a former senior Obama staffer.
他是前总统奥巴马的职员兄弟
Comcast, which owns NBC, is run by a major Democrat donor.
民主党的主要捐助者经营着拥有NBC的康卡斯特
Same for the leadership at CBS and Time Warner, which owns CNN.
CBS和拥有CNN的时代华纳的领导层同样如此
Only seven percent of American journalists identify as Republican.
美国记者里只有7%是共和党人
And while a lot of news outlets forbid their reporters to donate to candidates,
尽管许多新闻媒体禁止其记者向总统候选人捐款
96 percent of those who did donate
但在参与上次捐款的记者中
last time out gave to Hillary Clinton.
有96%捐给了希拉里·克林顿
These journalists claim that despite the fact they’re all Democrats,
这些记者声称尽管他们是民主党人
they can be objective. It just ain’t so.
但他们是客观的 事实并非如此
Psychologists have shown that
心理学家已经表明
when people associate almost exclusively with those who agree with them,
当人们几乎只和同意他们观点的人交往时
they suffer from groupthink and confirmation bias and lose their ability
他们会被群体思维和确认偏差影响
to see events clearly.
从而失去辨清事件的能力
Now it’s not that these journalists are liars exactly
准确来说 这些记者并不是骗子
it’s that their bias skews their reporting in very specific ways.
是他们的偏见以非常特定的方式歪曲了报道
Let me give you Andrew Klavan’s Three Rules of Mainstream Media Journalism.
让我介绍Andrew Klavan关于主流媒体新闻业的三大规则
These can transform any story,
这些规则可以将任何报道
whether it’s true or not, into Fake News.
转化成假新闻 无论其是否属实
Rule Number One: Whenever left-wing prejudices are confirmed
规则一 只要单个事件符合左翼偏见
by a single event, that event is treated as representative.
该事件便被视为代表性事件
But whenever left-wing prejudices are contradicted by a single event,
但是只要一个事件与左翼偏见发生冲突
that event is treated as an isolated incident
该事件便被视为一件孤立事件
and if you treat it as representative
如果你把它当作代表性事件
you are deemed to be hateful.
你肯定会引起仇恨
so for instance, a white cop shoots a black suspect.
就好像一个白人警察射击了一个黑人嫌犯
The mainstream media treats that story
主流媒体会把这篇新闻报道
as representative of general police racism
作为普通警察种族歧视的代表
even though studies show cops don’t
尽管有研究表明警察对黑人
use deadly force more often on blacks than on whites.
使用致命武力的频率并不比白人高多少
On the other hand,
另一方面
if a Muslim commits an act of terrorism,
如果一个穆斯林做了恐怖主义行为
and someone is bold enough to point out that the terrorist act is,
并且有人大胆指出这实际上是
in fact, representative of the daily acts of Muslim terror around the world,
穆斯林在全球日常恐怖活动的缩影
this is considered Islamophobic.
那么他会被报道成具有惧恨伊斯兰情结
The leftist media cherry-picks when an event illustrates a larger narrative.
当事件有更庞大的视角时 左翼媒体会从中筛选
That’s Fake News.
这就是所谓的假新闻
Rule Number Two:
规则二
When a scandal breaks on the right, the news is the scandal.
当一件丑闻在右翼爆发 这新闻就是丑闻
When a scandal breaks on the left,
当一件丑闻发生在左翼
the news is: who wrongfully disclosed that scandalous information?
新闻则会是 谁在错误地泄露这件丑闻
Thus, when the media wanted to raise suspicion
因此 当媒体怀疑特朗普
that Donald Trump was somehow in league with the Russians,
以某种方式和俄罗斯暗地勾结时
they freely quoted illegally leaked information from intelligence sources.
他们能自由引用从情报部门违法泄露的信息
But when Congressman Devin Nunes announced
但当国会议员Devin Nunes宣布
he had information that the Obama administration
他得知奥巴马政府
might have misused intelligence against Donald Trump’s transition team,
可能滥用了针对特朗普过渡团队的情报时
the story became: How did Nunes get that information?
报道变成 Nunes是怎么得到信息的
And did he do it legally?
而且他这么做合法吗
The scandal meter is heavily weighted to fall to the right- Fake News.
政治丑闻是假新闻爆发的重灾区
Rule Number Three: Individual extremists on the right are highlighted,
规则三 右翼的个别极端分子被突出显示
but the overall extremism of the left is ignored.
但是左翼的整体极端主义却被忽视了
In one of the fakest Fake News stories in recent history,
在最近历史上最假的假新闻之一
the mainstream media rose up as one
主流媒体统一口径
to tar conservative Tea Party members as racist,
将保守的茶叶党成员报道成种族主义者
when all they really wanted were lower taxes and less government spending.
当时茶叶党只是想要降低税收和减少政府支出
Reporters gave the Tea Party disparaging nicknames;
记者给茶叶党起了贬低意味的绰号
represented their almost universally peaceful gathering
把他们几乎普遍的和平集会描述为
as “ ugly ” and “ violent ”;
‘’丑陋的‘’和‘’暴力的‘’
and whenever an individual Tea Partier said something wrong
并且每当茶叶党的个别人说错什么
it was cited as evidence that the movement itself was tainted.
就会被当作运动本身被玷污的证据
Meanwhile, the continually violent, vandalizing,
与此同时 持续的暴力 蓄意破坏公物
anti-Semitic socialist movement that went
反犹太的社会主义行动
by the name of Occupy Wall Street was hailed
这些被称做“占领华尔街”的行动
by journalists as an important social development
被记者称赞为重大的社会发展
right up to the moment it vanished without a trace
直到它消失得无影无踪
(except for the piles of litter its protesters left behind).
(除了抗议者留下的成堆垃圾)
Peaceful Tea Partiers wanted the small government prescribed by the Constitution,
和平的茶叶党希望小型政府依照宪法行事
so they were radicals;
因此他们是激进主义者
violent Occupiers wanted the widespread government intrusion of socialism,
暴力占领者希望社会主义对政府广泛入侵
so they were heroes. Very Fake News.
因此他们是英雄 很假的新闻
Newsweek Editor Evan Thomas was once criticized
《新闻周刊》主编Evan Thomas曾遭到批评
when his magazine essentially convicted some
当时他的杂志大体上控告
white Duke University lacrosse players of raping a black woman
杜克大学的一些白人曲棍球员强奸一名黑人女性
a rape, it turns out, they did not commit. because it didn’t happen.
事实是他们并无犯罪 因为强奸没有发生
Thomas defended himself, saying,
Thomas自我辩护说
“The narrative was right, but the facts were wrong. ”
“叙述是对的 但这事实是错误的”
The mainstream media almost always get their left-wing narrative right,
主流媒体总把他们的左派叙述当作正确的
whether the facts support it or not.
无论事实能否支撑他们的观点
That’s called confirming your own prejudices.
这行为被称为确认自身的偏见
It’s called bias. It’s called Fake News.
它叫作偏见 它叫作假新闻
I’m Andrew Klavan for Prager University.
我是来自普拉格大学的Andrew Klavan

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视频概述

新闻的真假性愈发不得而知,本视频将告诉我们政治领域的假新闻究竟从何而来,我们又应如何看待其所带来的影响。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

白抹灰

审核员

审核员FW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOZ0irgLwxU

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