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什么是恶魔?|8-bit哲学第一季 – 译学馆
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What Is Evil? – 8-Bit Philosophy

What is Evil?
传统观念认为 恶魔的在外表现就是行为残暴
Traditional conceptions of evil focus on the utter monstrosity of evil actions —
令人生畏 以及无法想象的恐惧
the complete awe and unthinkability of horror.
他们被称为纯粹的或者说根本的恶魔 这种恶魔
Called pure or radical evil, this is the sort of evil associated with antagonists or
他们的敌人是圣人 他们是圣洁的对立面
villains – it is the antithesis of good.
德国犹太哲学家汉娜·阿伦特说 并非总是
For Hannah Arendt, a German-Jewish philosopher, evil is not always as simple
as an overriding desire to do no good.
Rather, Arendt chooses to focus her discussion of evil on this man: Adolf Eichmann.
艾希曼以反人类的罪名被起诉 法庭列举了他的无数恐怖行为
Put on trial for numerous horrors, Eichmann was found guilty of crimes against humanity,
尤其是反犹太人 他无视载着人的火车开往纳粹死亡集中营
especially against the Jewish people, for overseeing the trains that transported people to Nazi death camps.
1962年5月31日 他被处以绞刑
On May 31, 1962, he was hanged.
Arendt traveled to Jerusalem to cover the Eichmann trial. She expected to encounter
她以为这是一个生来冷漠的怪物 一个陶醉于自己恶行的男人
a cold calculating monster, a man who reveled in his malicious deeds.
然而调查结果令人吃惊 艾希曼只是个无害的人
Instead what she found was something far more shocking. Eichmann was an altogether innocuous
看起来像一个普通的小子 某种意义上说 他有些迂腐 典型的官僚主义者
and seemingly normal little man — in some sense, he was a cliché, a stereotypical bureaucrat,
生活里是个梦游者 他拒绝承认施与他的罪名
a sort of sleepwalker in life, a person who refused to comprehend the weight of his crimes.
艾希曼伤害别人 并非出于伤害人的恶毒念头
Eichmann wasn’t afflicted with an overriding sense of maliciousness.
相反 阿特伦发现他不顾他人 从不为他人着想
Instead, what Arendt found was a man that was thoughtless, that never stopped to put himself
in someone else’s shoes, that refused to think from another’s perspective.
She found someone with an unquestioning sense of obligation to authority,
他一生都在追随 渴望被安排 渴望受到领导
who all his life he had been a follower, a person eager to fit in and be led.
他愚忠 对自己的行为道德进行自我欺骗
He suffered from blind allegiance and a complete self-deception about the morality of his actions.
这使得阿克伦重新思考恶魔的定义 因为艾希曼看起来并非是恶魔
This made Arendt rethink the concept of evil, for Eichmann wasn’t a demon in any obvious way.
她听到的都是关于恶魔的陈腔滥调 每天都能听到对恶魔的解释:
What she encountered was the banality of evil, an everyday sort of evil:
渴望尽到官僚主义者的职责 没有同情心 没有人性
a bureaucrat eager to do his job – one who lacked empathy or perspective.
内心有恶魔 你不必残忍 暴虐 恶毒 而只需要
You don’t need to be cruel, sadistic, or vicious to embody evil — all that a person has to do
盲从别人的命令 对于阿特伦来说 那就是恶魔的定义
is blindly follow the orders of another person. For Arendt that is the banality of evil.
因此 亲爱的观众 如何从毫无主见的顺从中拯救人性?
So, dear viewer, what can be done to save humanity from mindless obedience?