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一沙一世界

What is dust made of? - Michael Marder

始于尘埃 生于尘埃 归于尘埃 万般事物 皆是尘埃
认识一下粉尘螨吧
Meet Dermatophagoides farinae.
这是种用八条腿爬行的生物
Crawling around on eight legs,
她没有眼睛 无法欣赏周围绚烂多姿的色彩
this creature has no eyes to appreciate the kaleidoscope of colors around her.
她靠着自己非同寻常的嗅觉
She relies on her extraordinarysense of smell
找到食物和安全的排卵地
to lead her to foodand safe places to lay eggs.
她比针头还要小
And she’s smaller than a pinhead.
粉尘螨是尘螨的一种
Dermatophagoides farinae is a dust mite.
尘螨还没有蚂蚁的十分之一大
Less than a tenth the size of an ant,
它们生活的天地就只在
a dust mite ’ s whole world is contained
床底的一层灰里
in the dusty film under a bed
或是在一个被遗忘的角落
or in a forgotten corner.
这都是我们眼皮子底下的地方 但是于我们而言
This realm is right under our noses, but from our perspective,
就只是五彩斑斓的灰尘混在了普通的灰尘里面罢了
the tiny specks of brilliant color blend together into a nondescript grey.
这些色彩斑斓的微粒都是些什么呢?
What are these colorfulmicroscopic particles?
你家里面的灰尘和 比如说
What distinguishes the dust in your house from, say,
和沙滩上的沙子有什么区别吗?
sand on a beach
它们就是很多不同东西的混合物吗?
is that it is a mixtureof many different ingredients.
尘土里可含有沙粒和死皮细胞
It can contain grains of sand, dead skin cells,
细小的毛发 动物的毛屑 花粉
tiny hairs and threads, animal dander, pollen,
人制造的污染物 外界的矿石等成分
manmade pollutants, minerals from outer space,
当然 还包括尘螨
and of course, dust mites.
尘螨以动物的皮屑 人的表皮和一些真菌为食
Dust mites eat animal dander, human skin, and some fungi.
我们持续的脱落死皮细胞
We shed dead skin cells constantly,
不管我们在哪儿住 它们都和家里的灰尘混在了一起
and wherever we live,they mix into the household dust.
我们的宠物也是这样的:
The same goes for our pets:
它们的皮屑和毛发混合在了灰尘里
their dander and hairs enter the mix,
我们衣服上的小线头和棉纤维也混了进去
as do tiny pieces of thread and cotton fibers from our clothes.
灰尘中所包含的这些东西构成了
These components makeevery household’s dust
每家每户独有的灰尘混合物
a unique blend of bitsfrom its particular inhabitants.
家里的灰尘中还含有从外面吹进来的东西
Household dust also contains substances that blow in from the wider world.
根据当地的地质情况
Depending on the local geology,
精细研磨的石英砂 煤炭或者火山灰
finely ground quartz, coal,or volcanic ash
可能作为大气的灰尘同花粉和真菌孢子
might enter the air as atmospheric dust,
一起进入到空气中
along with pollen and fungal spores.
工业活动也会产生水泥灰尘
Industrial activities also contribute cement powder,
汽车轮胎上的尘土和其它化学物质也混入了空气中的灰尘里
particles from car tires, and other chemicals to the airborne mix.
这些物质混合起来后会同指纹一般独一无二
The combination of these elements can be as unique as a fingerprint.
西班牙的土地富含碳酸盐成分
In Spain, where the landis rich in carbonate materials,
其灰尘中钙含量是尼日利亚的二十倍
dust contains 20 times as much calcium as dust in Nigeria,
那儿的地质情况与其差异很大
where the geology is quite different.
一场狂风之后
After a particularly violent storm,
科学家们根据沙漠土的特有成分
scientists identified dust fromthe Sahara Desert
从距撒哈拉沙漠千里之外的伦敦
thousands of miles away in London,
鉴别出了属于撒哈拉沙漠的尘土
based on its specific composition.
在未来
In the future,
我们或许可以通过泥土样本更精确地定位其所属的地区
we may be able to pinpoint the origins of dust samples even more specifically,
具体到其所属的某个街区甚至是住宅里
down to a particular neighborhood or even house-
这或许会对法医学的专家们很有帮助
something that may be of great help for forensic specialists.
除了带有人类 动物和景物的标记之外
In addition to markers of humans,animals, and landscapes,
灰尘还含有着更遥远之处的微粒
dust also contains particlesfrom further afield.
当一颗恒星在遥远的星系中爆炸后
When a star explodes in a distant galaxy,
温度极高的气体会使周围的一切事物都蒸发掉
super hot gases vaporize everything nearby.
此后 尘土沉淀下来 矿物质开始从气体中凝集
Then, the dust settles, minerals condense out of the gas.
在行星和星系间漂浮着
Floating out there between planets and galaxies,
包含着消亡恒星碎片的
this extraterrestrial dust contains
外太空的尘土
tiny pieces of extinguished stars
和将形成未来天体的基本成分
and the building blocksof future celestial bodies.
每年 成千上万吨的太空尘土落在地球上
Every year, tens of thousandsof tons of cosmic dust lands on Earth
并和地球上的矿物质混合在一起
and mingleswith terrestrial minerals.
这些化学物质 矿物质和星系间微粒的混合物
This blend of chemicals, minerals,and intergalactic particles
和每家每户的灰尘颗粒混合在一起
settles out of the air ontosurfaces in our homes,
从空气中沉淀下来落在我们的家里
mixing with the detritusof each house’s occupants.
恒星爆炸 火山喷发 建筑物 植物和动物
Stars explode, mountains erode, and buildings, plants, and animals
都将变成一抔黄土
are all slowly but surelypulverized into fine grey powder.
我们都注定归于尘土之中
We’re all destined to become dust,
抑或我们本就源于尘土
but it’s also possible that we came from it.
已经在太空中发现星际间的尘土携带着有机化合物
Interstellar dust has been found to carry organic compounds through space.
可能在数十亿年之前
It’s possible thatbillions of years ago,
这些宇宙间的微粒就是
some of these cosmic particleswere the seed of life
我们这颗蔚蓝色的小小星球上生命的起源
on our little blue planet.
访问一下TED教育的众筹网站吧
Have you ever visited TEDED’s patreon page?
每份捐助都会帮助支撑我们的非盈利性活动
Every donation help support our non-profit mission.
这里也有一些
And there are some particular perks
包括TED教育商店
including discounts for the TEDED shop,
独家的课程里精彩的动画的数据下载在内的优惠
exclusive digital downloads of amazing art from lessons,
等等 一系列特惠活动哦
and more.
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有关尘土的故事 最感动的是 视频结尾 跨越亿万光年 我——宇宙间的微粒 终于落在了你的家里😉

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来吧!尉英俊

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P21a5Uty-uc

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