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什么是”幻觉记忆“? – Michael Molina – 译学馆
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什么是”幻觉记忆“? - Michael Molina

What is déjà vu? What is déjà vu? - Michael Molina

Have you experienced déjà vu?
你出现过“幻觉记忆”吗?
It’s that shadowy feeling you get when a situation seems familiar.
就是当你觉得某种情形似曾相识时产生的那种朦胧感
A scene in a restaurant plays out exactly as you remember.
餐馆里发生的一幕 和你记忆中的一模一样
The world moves like a ballet you’ve choreographed,
这个世界仿佛是按着你编排的芭蕾舞来运转的
but the sequence can’t be based on a past experience
但这一幕不可能出自以前的经历
because you’ve never eaten here before.
因为你从未在这里用过餐
This is the first time you’ve had clams,
这是你第一次吃蛤蜊
so what’s going on?
所以究竟是怎么回事呢?
Unfortunately, there isn’t one single explanation for déjà vu.
可惜 现在对于“幻觉记忆”还没有一个确定的解释
The experience is brief and occurs without notice,
似曾相识感很短暂 也无法提前预料
making it nearly impossible for scientists to record and study it.
这使科学家几乎无法记录和研究它
Scientists can’t simply sit around and wait
科学家不能只是干坐在那儿
for it to happen to them —
等着它降临其身
this could take years.
这可能要等好几年
It has no physical manifestations
“幻觉记忆”没有任何身体上的表现
and in studies, it’s described by the subject as a sensation or feeling.
在研究中 实验对象常将它描述成一种直觉或感觉
Because of this lack of hard evidence,
由于缺乏强有力的证据
there’s been a surplus of speculation over the years.
这些年来出现了太多推测
Since Emile Boirac introduced déjà vu
自从艾米莉·波拉克首次提出“幻觉记忆”以来
as a French term meaning”already seen,”
这个法语词的意思是“已经见过”
more than 40 theories attempt to explain this phenomenon.
有40多种理论都试图解释这一现象
Still, recent advancements in neuroimaging and cognitive psychology
不过神经影像学和认知心理学上的最新进展
narrow down the field of prospects.
缩小了各种预测的范围
Let’s walk through three of today’s more prevalent theories,
我们来简单过一遍目前三种较为流行的理论吧
using the same restaurant setting for each.
统一用餐厅那一幕作背景
First up is dual processing.
首先是双加工理论
We’ll need an action.
我们需要一个动作来解释
Let’s go with a waiter dropping a tray of dishes.
比如 服务生打翻了一盘菜
As the scene unfolds,
随着画面出现
your brain’s hemispheres process a flurry of information:
你的大脑开始处理一连串的信息
the waiter’s flailing arms, his cry for help, the smell of pasta.
服务生挥舞着的双臂 他求援的呼喊 意大利面的香味
Within milliseconds, this information zips through pathways
这串信息在几毫秒内快速穿梭于神经通路中
and is processed into a single moment.
然后加工成一个瞬间
Most of the time, everything is recorded in-sync.
大脑通常会同步记录这一切
However, this theory asserts
然而 双加工理论声称
that déjà vu occurs when there’s a slight delay
一旦有一条神经通路的信息出现了延迟
in information from one of these pathways.
“幻觉记忆”就会发生
The difference in arrival times causes
信息到达的时间差
the brain to interpret the late information
导致大脑把迟到的信息理解成
as a separate event.
另一个单独事件
When it plays over the already-recorded moment,
当大脑回放记录好的瞬间时
it feels as if it’s happened before
它觉得好像已经发生过了
because, in a sense, it has.
因为从某种意义上 确实是发生过了
Our next theory deals with a confusion of the past
我们下一个理论讲的是过往记忆的混淆
rather than a mistake in the present.
而不是对当下的错误理解
This is the hologram theory, and we’ll use that tablecloth to examine it.
这就是全息理论 我们将用这张桌布来检验它
As you scan its squares,
当你扫视桌布方格时
a distant memory swims up from deep within your brain.
一个遥远的记忆从你脑海深处浮现
According to the theory,
根据这个理论
this is because memories are stored in the form of holograms,
这是因为记忆是以全息图的形式储存的
and in holograms, you only need one fragment to see the whole picture.
在全息记忆图里 只需要一个片段 你就能全览整幅图
Your brain has identified the tablecloth with one from the past,
你的大脑将过往记忆中的一块桌布
maybe from your grandmother’s house.
也许是你奶奶家的一块 等同于这块桌布
However, instead of remembering that you’ve seen it at your grandmother’s,
然而 你并没有想起来这块桌布曾经在奶奶家见过
your brain has summoned up the old memory without identifying it.
你的大脑召唤出以前的记忆 却没有识别出它
This leaves you stuck with familiarity, but no recollection.
这让你陷在熟悉感中 但就是想不起来
Although you’ve never been in this restaurant,
虽然你从没来过这家餐厅
you’ve seen that tablecloth but are just failing to identify it.
但你见过这块桌布 只是无法识别出它来
Now, look at this fork.
接下来看看这把叉子
Are you paying attention?
你集中注意力了吗?
Our last theory is divided attention,
我们要讲的最后一个理论是 分散注意力理论
and it states that déjà vu occurs when our brain subliminally takes in an environment
该理论声称 当我们的大脑下意识地接收一个场景
while we’re distracted by one particular object.
而我们恰巧被特定的对象分散了注意力时 “幻觉记忆”就会发生
When our attention returns, we feel as if we’ve been here before.
当我们的注意力回来时 我们就觉得我们以前好像来过这儿
For example, just now you focused on the fork
例如 你刚刚专注地盯着这把叉子
and didn’t observe the tablecloth or the falling waiter.
因而没有注意到桌布和跌倒的服务生
Although your brain has been recording everything in your peripheral vision,
虽然你的大脑记录了周围发生的一切
it’s been doing so below conscious awareness.
但那都是在潜意识中进行的
When you finally pull yourself away from the fork,
当你终于不再专注于那把叉子
you think you’ve been here before because you have,
你就觉得你曾经来过这儿 因为你确实来过
you just weren’t paying attention.
你只是没注意而已
While all three of these theories share the common features of déjà vu,
以上三种理论都有“幻觉记忆”的特征
none of them propose to be the conclusive source of the phenomenon.
但没有一种能给这一现象一个盖棺定论的解释
Still, while we wait for researchers and inventers
不过 尽管我们期待研究人员和发明家
to come up with new ways to capture this fleeting moment,
提出新方法来捕捉这稍纵即逝的瞬间
we can study the moment ourselves.
我们仍然可以自己研究这个瞬间
After all, most studies of déjà vu are based on first-hand accounts,
毕竟 大多数“幻觉记忆”的研究都基于第一手资料
so why can’t one be yours?
所以为什么不能是你自己的呢?
The next time you get déjà vu,
下次当你出现“幻觉记忆”时
take a moment to think about it.
花点时间想一想
Have you been distracted?
你的注意力分散了吗?
Is there a familiar object somewhere?
周围有没有什么熟悉的物品?
Is your brain just acting slow?
你的大脑刚好运转慢了?
Or is it something else?
还是另有其因?

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“幻觉记忆”是怎么来的?不妨来了解一下三种流行的理论解释吧~

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