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究竟什么是暗物质和暗能量? – 译学馆
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究竟什么是暗物质和暗能量?

What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?

物质,就像我们知道的那样;
Matter, as we know it;
原子、星星、星系、行星、树、岩石和我们。
Atoms, stars and galaxies, planets and trees, rocks and us.
我们已知宇宙中的物质仅仅占不到5%。
This matter accounts for less than 5% of the known universe.
大概25%是暗物质;70%是暗能量。
About 25% is dark matter; and 70% is dark energy.
这些都是不可视的。
Both of which are invisible.
这听上去有点奇怪,因为它意味着我们所见的世界,
This is kind of strange because it suggests that everything we experience is
只是现实的冰山一角。
really only a tiny fraction of reality.
不过更糟的是,
But it gets worse.
我们根本搞不懂暗物质和暗能量是什么,也不知道他们怎么用。
We really have no clue what dark matter and energy are, or how they work.
尽管我们确信它们是存在的。
We are pretty sure they exist though.
那我们现在知道什么呢?
So, what do we know?
暗物质是让星系得以存续的原料之一。
Dark matter is the stuff that makes it possible for galaxies to exist.
当我们计算为啥宇宙长成现在这样的时候,
When we calculated why the universe is structured the way it is,
我们很容易发现它不只由普通物质构成。
it quickly became clear that there’s just not enough normal matter.
可视物质的引力不足以构成宇宙、
The gravity of the visible matter is not strong enough to form
星系和这样复杂的结构。
galaxies and complex structures.
星星更有可能散作一片而不能形成星系。
The stars would more likely be scattered all over the place and not form galaxies.
所以我们发现肯定有什么东西在这其中,或是围绕着它们。
So, we know there is something else inside and around them.
这些东西不发光,也不反射光。
Something that doesn’t emit or reflect light.
也就是黑暗…
Something dark…
不过除了计算证明了暗物质的存在,
but besides being able to calculate the existence of dark matter,
我们也能看到它…在某种程度上。
we can see it… kind of.
有大量暗物质集中的地方会折射路过的光线。
Places with a high concentration of dark matter bend light passing near by.
所以我们知道这里有些东西和重力相互作用。
So we know there’s something there that interacts with gravity.
现在,我们有更多关于暗能量“不是什么”的主意,比知道它“是什么”要多。
Right now, we have more ideas about what dark energy is not, than what it is!
我们知道暗物质不只是没有星星的一团普通物质。
We know dark matter is not just clouds of normal matter without stars,
因为那样我们就能探测到它所散发出的光线了。
because it would emit particles we could detect.
暗物质也不是反物质,
Dark matter is not anti-matter,
因为当反物质与正常物质反应时,它产生一种独特的伽马射线。
because anti-matter produces unique gamma rays when it reacts with normal matter.
暗物质也不是由黑洞构成,
Dark matter is also not made up of black holes,
特别紧密的物体会猛烈地影响周围的环境。
very compact objects that violently affect their surroundings,
而且暗物质似乎遍布四处。
while dark matter seems to be scattered all over the place.
基本上,我们只能确定三件事;
Basically, we only know 3 things for sure;
1、这里有什么东西。
1. Something is out there.
2、它与引力相互作用。
2. It interacts with gravity.
3、这里有一大堆这玩意。
3. There is a lot of it.
暗物质大概是由一种不与光和物质反应的
Dark matter is probably made up of a complicated exotic particle
复杂的外来粒子以某种我们预料的方式构成的,
that doesn’t interact with light and matter in a way we expect,
不过现在,我们还啥也不知道。
but right now, we just don’t know.
暗能量则更为奇特且神秘。
Dark energy is even more strange and mysterious.
我们不能探测到它,没法测量它甚至感知不到它。
We can’t detect it, we can’t measure it and we can’t taste it.
不过我们很清楚地看到了它的效果。
But we do see its effects very clearly.
1929年,爱德华哈勃探测出了
In 1929, Edward Hubble examined how the wavelength of light
被遥远的星系发出的, 向着电磁频谱红端转移的
emitted by distant galaxies, shifts towards the red end
穿越太空的光的波长。
of the electromagnetic spectrum as it travels through the space.
他发现更微弱、更远的星系表现出更大程度的红移;
He found that fainter, more distant galaxies showed a large degree of red shift;
不过近一点的星系就没有那么强烈。
closer galaxies, not so much.
哈勃认为这是因为宇宙自身在膨胀。
Hubble determined that this was because the universe itself is expanding.
之所以发生红移,是因为
The red shift occurs, because the wavelengths of light
光的波长随着宇宙膨胀而变化。
are stretched as the universe expands.
近日,更多发现说明,宇宙膨胀正在加速。
More recent discoveries have shown that, the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
在这之前,人们普遍认为引力会导致
Before that, it was thougth that the pull of gravity would cause the expansion to
膨胀加快或减缓,甚至收缩或自我崩溃。
either slow down or even retract and collapse in on itself at some point.
空间也不改变它的特性;它只是增多了。
Space doesn’t change its properties as it expands; there’s just more of it.
新的空间将会无处不在。
New space is constantly created everywhere,
构成星系的材料将会由重力绑在一起。
galaxies are tight bound clusters of stuff held together by gravity
所以我们不会在日常生活中经历这种扩张。
so we don’t experience this expansion in our daily lives.
但是它却存在于我们周围任何地方。
But we see it everywhere around us.
无论宇宙和何处存在着空白空间,它都将在几秒内被填满。
Wherever there is empty space in the universe, more is forming every second.
所以,暗能量似乎是空白空间的某种固有能量。
So, dark energy seems to be some kind of energy intrinsic to empty space.
比任何已知能量都要强
Energy that is stronger than anything else we know
而且它将随着时间的流逝而愈发强大。
and it keeps getting stronger as time passes by.
空白空间的能量将比宇宙中的所有事物的总和还要强大。
Empty space has more energy than everything else in the universe combined.
我们有很多关于暗能量本质的推断。
We have multiple ideas about what dark energy might be.
其中之一,暗能量不是一种物体,而是空间的性质。
One idea is, the dark energy is not a thing, but just a property of space.
空白空间也不是空空如也,它有着自己的能量。
Empty space is not nothing, it has its own energy.
它可以创造更多空间而且它很活跃。
It can generate more space and is quite active.
所以,就像宇宙膨胀那样,会有越来越多的空间
So, as the universe expands, it could be that just more and more space
来补充那些沟壑,也就使膨胀加速。
appears to fill the gaps and this leads to a faster expanding universe.
这一点很想爱因斯坦在1917年提出的,
This idea is close to an idea that Einstein had back in 1917,
宇宙常数的概念,
of the concept of a cosmological constant,
它是一种抵消重力的力量。
a force that counteracted the force of gravity.
现存唯一问题,就是每当我们试图计算能量的总量时
The only problem is, that when we tried to calculate the amount of this energy
结果都是错误的,只会徒增茫然
the result was so wrong and weird, that it only added to the confusion.
另一种说法,空白空间事实上被一种
Another idea is, that empty space is actually full of
暂时的,虚拟的粒子自发且不断地
temporary, virtual particles that spontaneously and continually
从无中降生,又终归于无。
form from nothing and then dissapear into nothing again.
这种构成粒子的能量就是暗能量。
The energy form those particles could be dark energy.
又或者暗能量是一种未知的动态流体或是场
Or maybe dark energy is an unknown kind of dynamic energy fluid or field
它们渗透到整个宇宙,但不知何故,与普通能量相比
which permeates the entire universe, but somehow has the opposite effect
有着相反的效果。
on the universe than normal energy and matter.
不过就算它存在的话,我们也不知道我们怎样又从哪探测到它们。
But if it exists, we don’t know how and where or how we could detect it.
所以仍有许多问题等待解答。
So there are still a lot of questions to answer.
这就是我们关于暗物质和暗能量的理论;
Our theories about dark matter and dark energy are still just that;
理论。
theories.
一方面,它可能有些无趣,另一方面,
On one hand, this is kind of frustrating, on the other hand this is frontier science
它是前沿科学,这使它十分一颗赛艇。
making it very exciting.
它告诉我们无论我们怎样自诩为万物之灵,
It shows us that no matter how much we feel we’re on top of things,
我们仍只是一群手持智能手机,住在小小岛屿
we are still very much apes with smartphones, on a tiny
却仍仰望天空,探究宇宙奥秘的猩猩。
fragile island in space looking into the sky wondering how our universe works
还有很多事需要学习,这些事也特别赞。
There is so much left to learn, and that is awesome.
这个视频由澳大利亚科学学会赞助,
This video is supported by the Australian Academy of Science,
它们为此在科学方面贡献了许多。
which promotes and supports excellence in science.
在nova.org.au了解更多相关话题。
Learn more about this topic and others like it at nova.org.au.
这是他们的努力所以去看看他们的网站吧。
It was a blast of work with them so go check out their site.
你也可以在patron.com给我们支持和赞助。
Our videos are also made possible by your support on patreon.com,
如果你也想支援我们或者成为 Kurzgesagt Bird Army的一员的话
if you want to support us and become part of the Kurzgesagt Bird Army,
那就看看我们的网站吧。
check out our patreon page.
本视频英文字幕由Amara.org社区提供。
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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