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但丁《神曲地狱篇》讲解 – 译学馆
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但丁《神曲地狱篇》讲解

What is Dante's Inferno? | Overview & Summary!

Welcome to I Am Your Target Demographic and
欢迎来到《你想看的就在这里》
today we’re doing a deep dive into the Divine Comedy, an epic poem written in the early 1300s
今天我们要深入一部14世纪初的史诗《神曲》
by the Italian Dante Alighieri,
作者是意大利诗人但丁·阿利吉耶里
who is mostly referred to as just Dante.
通常提到他时 只称他为但丁
We’re going to cover it all fairly superficially
我们的介绍会比较浅显
but we’ll cover the events of all three poems in the Divine Comedy
但会包含整个三部曲中的主要事件
in a way that should be easy to understand.
讲述也会采用便于理解的方式
This won’t include everything,
这个讲解中不会包含所有细节
just the gist of each depth of Hell, terrace of purgatory, and sphere of heaven.
只会提到“地狱” “炼狱”和“天堂”每层的要点
This video will cover Inferno,
今天的视频会讲到《地狱篇》
followed by Purgatorio next week and then Paradiso last.
下周讲《炼狱篇》 再下周是最后一篇《天堂篇》
Let’s look at the real life Dante to start off.
首先 我们先回顾一下但丁写作时的真实生活背景
At this time in history,
在历史的此刻
Dante was going through a rough patch,
但丁正经历一段艰难的时期
as life in Florence Italy saw
在当时的意大利佛罗伦萨
most people torn between the church and the state
大多数人挣扎在教会和国家之间
and Dante himself was exiled for his allegiances
但丁本人也因反对执政党
to an opposing political party.
而被驱逐出自己的故乡
It’s all very confusing
这段历史比较复杂
so we’re not going to spend much time on that.
所以我们不会过多讲解这些内容
Dante also suffered a bit of heartbreak,
但丁也经历过一段伤心往事
being married but falling in love with another who
结婚以后 他爱上了另一名女子
died at a young age, named Beatrice,
这个红颜薄命的女子名叫碧翠斯
who will come into play later.
我们之后会再讲到她
As we look at the Divine Comedy, just one of Dante’s works,
《神曲》是但丁的著作之一
you’ll see quite a few of these real life characters appear,
你会看到很多现实生活中的人物出现
as Dante himself appears as the protagonist in his own story.
但丁本人也作为主角出现在故事中
Dante also believed in making literature approachable,
但丁也相信文学是平易近人的
writing the Divine Comedy in a language understandable to the masses,
不同于当时大部分以拉丁文著成的作品
as opposed to most literature of the time being written in latin.
《神曲》使用的语言通俗易懂
As Dante was interested in religion and the consequences of our actions here on Earth,
因为但丁对宗教和人们在世间行为后果的兴趣
the Divine Comedy tells the tale of Dante trying to aspire to heaven,
《神曲》讲述了但丁渴望进入天堂的故事
but he must travel through hell and purgatory to get there.
但他必须先穿过地狱和炼狱
Most of what he writes
他著作中的大部分内容
is based on imagery found in popular religious texts,
都取材于当时盛行的宗教典籍
including the Bible
其中包括《圣经》
some of it was embellished for the sake of storytelling.
考虑到故事性 对其中部分内容加以修饰
Inferno is likely the most popular of the three sections
《地狱篇》是三部曲中流传最广的一部
and it’s with Inferno that we’ll begin.
我们也将从《地狱篇》讲起
With the help of a guide named Virgil,
在向导维吉尔的帮助下
Dante must navigate the depths of Hell,
但丁必须穿越地狱深渊
in order to make his way through the Earth, to the other side,
这样他才能穿过地球 到达另一边
then climb a mountain in the story of Purgatorio,
然后爬上《炼狱篇》中的高山
and then make it to Heaven (or Paradiso) with his love Beatrice,
最后才能和心爱的碧翠斯来到天堂
which most scholars agree is based on his real life love
众多学者认为故事来自他现实中的爱情
but is presented here as a more general and vague feeling of love that we all yearn for.
但它实际上代表的是我们对爱情普遍而模糊的渴望
Some even argue that Beatrice stands as a substitute for faith or theology as well.
还有人认为 碧翠斯也代表着信仰和宗教
However our story begins with just Virgil the guide and Dante.
无论怎样 我们的故事先从向导维吉尔和但丁讲起
They begin at the gates to Hell,
他们首先来到地狱之门
inscribed with “Abandon all hope, you who enter here.”
门上铭刻着“来者啊 快将一切希望扬弃!”
They go through and enter what’s called “Ante-Inferno”
他们穿过大门 进入了“地狱过道”
which is before you really reach what we start calling the layers of Hell.
穿过它才能通向真正的“地狱外围”
This area is for people that have had the choice between good and evil
这里都是些曾有过选择善恶的机会
and could not choose,
却没有做出选择的人
so have therefore been rejected by both heaven and hell.
所以他们无法进入天堂 也无法进入地狱
They are constantly tormented and chased by hornets and snakes,
他们被马蜂和毒蛇永远追逐 蜇咬着
forcing them into action.
强迫他们永远奔跑
There are angels here as well,
这里也有天使
those that chose neither side in the war of good versus evil.
那些在善恶之战时袖手旁观的天使
They are also tormented.
他们也受到酷刑的折磨
They come to a great river,
维吉尔和但丁来到一条大河边
which serves as the boundary of hell
这里是地狱的边界
and many souls wait for a boat ride from Charon
无数亡魂在这里等待一艘名为“卡戎”的船
who appears in Greek mythology on the river into Hades.
这艘船出现在希腊神话中的冥河畔
You’ll notice a lot of
随着讲解的进行
Greek and Roman mythology seeping into this poem as we go on.
你会注意到诗里化用了很多希腊和罗马神话的内容
Now, about the pronunciation, “Sharon” isn’t likely the Greek pronunciation
那么说到“卡戎”的发音 我没有用希腊语发音
but I’m going off how astronomers pronounce Charon
而是用的天文学里称呼“冥卫一”
when talking about the moon of Pluto with the same name.
即冥王星的卫星的发音
So Charon crosses with them and we encounter the first real circle of Hell
他们乘“卡戎”渡河 终于来到了真正的地狱第一层
and this one is called Limbo.
这里被称为“侯判所”
These are quote unquote virtuous pagans.
这里的人是“贞节的异教徒”
They’ve done great deeds, lived morally right lives,
他们才能卓越 行事遵从道德
but either didn’t accept Christianity
但没有信仰基督教
or lived before it existed, or they were never baptized.
或生于基督之前 或从未受洗
God granted passage of a few figures,
天神引导为数不多的几人
such as Noah and Moses, to enter Heaven
比如诺亚和摩西 进入天堂
but it’s phrased as a rare occurrence.
但这是极少出现的机会
This is where Virgil and other poets and philosophers exist,
维吉尔和其他诗人 哲学家都在这一层
so Virgil will return here after their adventure.
而维吉尔在这趟旅程结束后 会回到这里
There isn’t a physical punishment here
这里没有肉体的刑罚
but rather a general sadness
但却无法摆脱精神上的痛苦
that they are so close to Heaven but forever kept outside.
他们如此接近天堂 却永远被拒之门外
The second circle of Hell that they approach is for the Lustful.
地狱的第二层关押的是淫欲者
These are those that gave in to pleasure
这一层的人曾沉沦于无边的欢愉
and now are cursed with eternity in the midst of a raging storm,
如今他们被诅咒 永世无法逃离无尽的风暴
wind so strong that it whips them about
狂风鞭挞着他们
uncontrollably, ravaging them against rocks.
让他们无法控制自己的身躯 只能不断向岩石撞去
The third circle of Hell continues to rain
地狱的第三层叫“暴雨”
but now it is filth raining from the sky and
污水自天空不断滴漏
those that are gluttonous and consumed in excess lay on the ground unable to move,
那些暴食与浪费的人躺在地上无法动弹
forever pelted with debris and sewage.
只能永远被从天而降的瓦砾与污水砸击
In this level, Dante also sees the monster Cerberus prowling.
在这一层 但丁还看到了游走的怪兽凯洛贝罗斯
In Greek mythology,
在希腊神话中
Cerberus is the three-headed dog that keeps souls in Hades.
凯洛贝罗斯是看守冥府亡灵的三头犬
It’s interesting that Dante continues to mix mythologies and religions here.
有趣的是 此处但丁把宗教和神话揉捏在一起
Similar to those that are gluttonous, our fourth circle is for the greedy.
与上一层的暴食者类似 第四层关押着贪婪者
Here we see a demon named Plutus,
这一层盘踞着恶魔普鲁托斯
who in Greek mythology was the god of money and wealth.
在希腊神话中 他是掌管金钱与财富之神
The greedy here are forever battling each other,
贪婪者永远在互相攻击对方
rolling giant boulders into each other, a constant jousting match.
他们不断推动巨石互撞 妄图战胜对方
There is no reprieve from the battle.
这是一场永远不会止息的较量
Our fifth circle is against a giant river, the river Styx.
地狱的第五层是名为斯堤克斯的宽阔河流
The wrathful and angry are kept here, forever fighting each other,
狂躁者与暴怒者在此沉沦 永远互相攻击
clawing and biting in anger.
伴随怒火相互肉搏 撕咬皮肉
The sullen and gloomy are also kept here,
愠怒者与阴郁者也被关押至此
submerged under the water, forced to breathe and choke on the black mud,
他们被浸没水中 被迫呼吸 呛入河中的黑泥
withdrawn from the world.
永远与世隔离
Virgil and Dante cross the river and they approach lower hell,
维吉尔和但丁渡过这条河 来到了下一层地狱
the worst of the worst.
最糟糕的一层
There is a city here and it’s guarded by fallen angels
这是一座被堕天使守护的城池
who turn Virgil and Dante away,
他们驱赶维吉尔和但丁
no living man may enter, they shout.
“没有人可以活着进入这里” 他们咆哮着
Here is the first place where Virgil holds no sway or influence
这里 维吉尔第一次失去了影响力
and may not be able to protect Dante.
在这里 他也无法保护但丁
Now for some reason, a messenger from Heaven arrives
然而不知为何 天堂传来一道消息
and tells these angels that they should open the gates to travelers and
命令天使们为旅行者打开大们
they reluctantly obey,
天使们不情愿的遵从了
Virgil and Dante walking into a giant graveyard
维吉尔和但丁步入一处巨大的墓园
with tombstones covered in flames.
这里满是被火焰灼烤着的墓石
Here lie the heretics,
这里躺着的是异端者
those that pronounced other false religions.
那些鼓吹伪教之人
Even though they’ve seen a lot already,
尽管他们已经见识了很多
Virgil prepares Dante for the next circle,
维吉尔仍带着但丁来到了下一层
for those who are violent.
那里关押着施暴者
There are many types of violence,
施暴者被分为很多类型
the first being violent to others, like murderers and warlords.
首先是对他人施暴之人 如杀人者和掳掠者
This also might be those who are violent to themselves,
这里还有对自己施暴之人
committing acts of suicide.
以及自杀的人
Lastly, those that are violent against God,
最后 还有对上帝施暴之人
such as blasphemers against God
譬如那些渎神者
and violent against nature, God’s creation.
还有向自然及上帝所造之物施暴的人
Virgil and Dante meet and ask a creature named Geryon
维吉尔和但丁遇到怪物格里昂
to take them to the eighth circle of Hell.
询问格里昂能否带他们去地狱的第八层
This beast is a symbol of fraud,
这个怪兽是欺诈的象征
as he has the face of a man which tricks you,
他长着一张蒙骗他人的人脸
while he stings you with a scorpion tail.
也会用自己的蝎尾蛰刺旁人
In this story,
在这个故事里
he’s got massive wings and flies our heroes to the next level,
他有巨大的翅膀 带着主人公飞到了下一层
which is for fraud itself.
这本身也是一种欺骗
In this level, it’s a bowl almost with demons torturing people all around,
地狱的这一层是碗状的 恶魔折磨着周围所有人
those that have deceived and manipulated others during their life.
那些在生活中欺骗和操纵他人的人
This includes pimps and sexual manipulators,
包括皮条客和淫媒
as well as gamblers and people who created false money.
还有赌徒和伪造假币的人
We’ve got fortune tellers with their heads placed backwards,
这里有头被拧了半圈的预言者
so they can only see behind them.
这样他们就只能看到身后的东西
These punishments are terrifying yet apt to their crimes.
这些刑罚十分可怕 但他们也罪该如此
In the final circle of Hell we have Satan himself,
地狱的最后一层是撒旦本人
a giant three-headed beast that is forever flapping his giant wings,
一只巨大的三头怪兽 一直扇动着翅膀
which makes this level of Hell actually frozen
因此这一层地狱是被冰封的
and most of Satan’s body is encased in ice.
撒旦大部分身躯也冻结在冰里
He is forever punishing the three greatest betrayers in history,
他永世惩罚着历史上三个罪行深重的背叛者
Judas who betrayed Jesus Christ,
背叛耶稣基督的犹大
and Brutus and Cassius, who betrayed Julius Caesar.
背叛了裘力斯·凯撒的布鲁图和卡西乌斯
There are other men completely frozen in ice,
还有其他被冰封冻的人
those that have betrayed their family, their God, or their country.
他们是那些背叛了家庭 上帝和祖国的人
As an author, Dante makes some sharp criticisms during these last few circles,
作为作家 但丁借这几层地狱表达了尖锐的批判
including referencing political parties and real people.
他将一些政党和真实人物放到了里面
They all exist deepest bowels of hell for what they supposedly did.
他们因传闻中的罪行被打入地狱最底层
Virgil takes Dante and they climb down Satan ’ s frozen body
维吉尔带着但丁沿着撒旦冰封的身躯向下爬
until they end up at his feet,
直到他们爬到撒旦的脚边
which has now somehow turned upside down,
而撒旦的脚此时已经莫名地倒转了
as they now begin their ascent back to the surface,
于是他们开始向上爬回地面
but on the other end of the planet.
不过这已经是地球的另一端了
Their adventure to the surface is quick
他们在地上只待了一会
and they now arrive at the base of purgatory.
而后 他们便来到了炼狱脚下
This is where Dante’s Inferno ends
这就是但丁《地狱篇》的结尾
and the poem Dante’s Purgatorio begins.
自此开始了但丁的《炼狱篇》
You might ask at this point
这时你或许想问
why Purgatorio and Paradiso aren’t as popular.
为何《炼狱篇》和《天堂篇》没有那么受欢迎
I think it’s the same reason why people are obsessed with
我想这也是人们迷恋电视上的
serial killers and crime shows on television,
连环杀手和犯罪节目的原因
we’re drawn to the dark and terrifying.
人总被黑暗和恐怖所吸引
It also might have to do with people wanting to compare their own sins against the metric of Inferno,
或许也和人们想参照《地狱篇》检视自己的罪行有关
maybe in an effort to feel better about their mistakes.
或许人们想努力对自己犯下的错误释怀
We’ll continue the epic poem next week.
下周我们继续讲解这篇长诗
So that is it for Dante’s Inferno, the first part of three.
以上就是但丁三部曲的第一部《地狱篇》
So next Wednesday, the video for Purgatorio will be up.
下周三将会更新《炼狱篇》
If it’s up already, you can find it right here.
一旦更新了 你就能在这看到它
Or you can find other What Is videos right here
你也可以看看本系列的其他视频
to learn about other interesting topics.
了解其他有趣的内容
Thanks for watching!
感谢观看!

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视频概述

《神曲》第一篇:《地狱篇》的讲解,包含每层地狱的粗略介绍

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

短尾龙

审核员

审核员_Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EE5ihycCq54

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