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什么是达达主义?

What is Dada? Art Movements & Styles

苏格兰国立美术馆
什么是达达主义
The First World War was one of the most destructive wars in our history.
第一次世界大战是人类历史上破坏性最强的战争之一
It was during this time that the avant-garde movement Dada emerged
在这一时期 因为对残酷战争的消极抵触
partly as a negative reaction to the horrors of war.
先锋运动达达主义兴起了
Primarily a literary and artistic movement,
作为一场主要涉及文学和艺术领域的运动
Dada emerged almost simultaneously in several cities in Europe and America.
达达主义几乎在欧美的数个城市中同时出现
It was in Zurich’s Cabaret Voltaire club in 1916
1916年 在苏黎世的伏尔泰酒店
that the movement was first founded by Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings,
这场运动由雨果·巴尔和艾米·翰宁斯发起
with other members including German-French sculptor Hans Arp
其他成员还有法国德裔雕塑家汉斯·阿尔普
and Tristan Tzara, a French-Romanian avant-garde poet.
和罗马尼亚法裔先锋诗人 特里斯唐·查拉
In New York Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia,
在纽约 马塞尔·杜尚和弗朗西斯·毕卡比亚
who were most associated with Dadaist ideas of anti-art,
则拥护“反艺术”的达达思想
revolutionized ideas of what constituted an artwork,
革新了艺术品由何组成这一概念
with Duchamp famously coining the term ‘readymade’ to describe his found object art,
众所周知 杜尚造出了“现成品”一词 用来描述现成物品的艺术创作
which transformed the conventions of visual art.
这一行为改变了视觉艺术的惯有形式
French-born Picabia, a highly versatile artist, worked using a number of styles throughout his life.
艺术家毕卡比亚生于法国 极富才艺 一生中尝试了不同的创作风格
He experimented with Impressionism and Cubism,
他尝试过印象派和立体派
but it was for his work with the New York Dada group that he became most noted.
但在纽约达达团体中的作品最为著名
Influenced by his friend Marcel Duchamp and by the enthusiasm for mechanisation in America,
受到朋友马塞尔·杜尚的影响 以及对美国机械化的热爱
Picabia began depicting the machine in his work.
毕卡比亚开始在他的作品中描绘机械
Like Duchamp, Picabia had a taste for paradox and the absurd.
像杜尚一样 毕卡尼亚对悖论与荒诞情有独钟
He was never afraid to court unconventionality,
他从不畏惧剑走偏锋
and his works often had hidden ironic meanings.
作品也常常隐含着讽刺的意味
The Zurich group published a Dada magazine and held numerous art exhibitions
苏黎世的达达主义者们出版了一本名为《达达》的杂志 并组织了大量的艺术展
spreading their anti-war, anti-art ideas.
传播反战争 反艺术的思想
They also had regular events with experimental poetry readings, music and dancing,
他们还定期组织创造性的诗歌朗诵 音乐和舞蹈活动
and Tzara and Arp famously explored ‘chance’
查拉和阿尔普将纸撕碎撒在地板上
through ripping up and scattering paper pieces onto the floor.
成功地探索了“偶然性”艺术
Dada continued to spread at the end of the world war with groups in Paris and Berlin, among other cities.
一战后期 通过巴黎和柏林的组织传播 达达主义继续在其他城市发展
Those who participated in Club Dada in Berlin included Georg Grosz and Hannah Höch.
乔治·格罗茨以及汉娜·霍克在柏林加入达达俱乐部
Collage was favoured over more traditional techniques by many Dada artists including Höch
与传统技艺相比 拼贴艺术得到更多达达艺术家的喜爱 包括霍克
who is best known for producing satirical and disturbing photomontages
她以创造具有讽刺意味且令人不安的图片蒙太奇而闻名
like (untitled) from the collection: from an ethnographical museum.
比如这个藏品 无名拼接画:来自一家民族博物馆
Her work often focused on the situation in Weimar Germany from a woman’s perspective,
她的作品常常从女性视角描绘德国魏玛时期的情境
combining political commentary, gender issues,
并结合政治评论 性别歧视问题
questions of modernity and a critique of the bourgeoisie.
现代问题以及对中产阶级的批判
In the early 1920s, many Dada artists had converged in Paris
20世纪20年代初 许多达达主义艺术家集聚巴黎
including Arp, Ernst, Duchamp and Picabia,
包括阿普尔 恩斯特 杜尚和毕卡比亚
where Andre Breton and others had begun to formulate the ideas that would become Surrealism.
在这里 安德烈·布勒东和其他人开始形成早期超现实主义思想
Although the movement was essentially brought to an end with the emergence of surrealism,
即使这场运动随着超现实主义的出现而结束
Dada is now considered a watershed moment in 20th-century art.
但达达主义仍被认为是20世纪艺术的分水岭
In the 1960s artists like Joseph Beuys were also referred to as Neo-dadists
20世纪60年代 因为提倡“有生命的艺术 反对无生命艺术”
for their promotion of ‘living, anti-art.’
Joseph Beuys 和几个艺术家被认为是新达达主义者
Artists influenced by Dada’s radical ideas reached beyond the visual arts and into music,
受达达激进思想的影响 艺术家们向视觉艺术之外发展 进入音乐领域
with the likes of Frank Zappa and David Bowie using dadaist techniques,
他们和Frank Zappa及David Bowie一起
collaging lyrics and musical composition.
用达达主义者的技巧 重新拼接歌词和乐章
Bowie also famously showed the continuing impact of dada through costume.
Bowie的服装也充分展现了达达主义的持续性影响
Developed amidst the darkness of World War One,
这场反艺术运动发展于黑暗的一战时期
this anti-art movement had its focal point in the nonsensical and absurd.
追求虚无和荒诞事物
Dadaism echoed the marked disillusionment of the time
达达主义对时代不抱幻想
and concerned itself with the absence of meaning and the inevitability of chance in life events.
它关注无意义和生活中不可避免的偶然性
If being anti-art means rejecting the styles and sensibilities of the day
如果反艺术意味着摒弃时代风格和鉴赏力
to make way for fresh thinking and approaches…
以此来给新思想和新方法让路
what artistic struggle could there be.
那还会有艺术碰撞出现吗

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视频概述

达达主义是一场兴起于一战时期的苏黎世,波及视觉艺术、文学(主要是诗歌)、戏剧和美术设计等领域的文艺运动。达达主义是20世纪西方文艺发展历程中的一个重要流派,是第一次世界大战颠覆、摧毁旧有欧洲社会和文化秩序的产物。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ABNwtDyx7T4

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