The First World War was one of the most destructive wars in our history.
It was during this time that the avant-garde movement Dada emerged
partly as a negative reaction to the horrors of war.
Primarily a literary and artistic movement,
Dada emerged almost simultaneously in several cities in Europe and America.
It was in Zurich’s Cabaret Voltaire club in 1916
that the movement was first founded by Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings,
with other members including German-French sculptor Hans Arp
and Tristan Tzara, a French-Romanian avant-garde poet.
In New York Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia,
who were most associated with Dadaist ideas of anti-art,
revolutionized ideas of what constituted an artwork,
with Duchamp famously coining the term ‘readymade’ to describe his found object art,
众所周知 杜尚造出了“现成品”一词 用来描述现成物品的艺术创作
which transformed the conventions of visual art.
French-born Picabia, a highly versatile artist, worked using a number of styles throughout his life.
艺术家毕卡比亚生于法国 极富才艺 一生中尝试了不同的创作风格
He experimented with Impressionism and Cubism,
but it was for his work with the New York Dada group that he became most noted.
Influenced by his friend Marcel Duchamp and by the enthusiasm for mechanisation in America,
Picabia began depicting the machine in his work.
Like Duchamp, Picabia had a taste for paradox and the absurd.
He was never afraid to court unconventionality,
and his works often had hidden ironic meanings.
The Zurich group published a Dada magazine and held numerous art exhibitions
spreading their anti-war, anti-art ideas.
They also had regular events with experimental poetry readings, music and dancing,
and Tzara and Arp famously explored ‘chance’
through ripping up and scattering paper pieces onto the floor.
Dada continued to spread at the end of the world war with groups in Paris and Berlin, among other cities.
一战后期 通过巴黎和柏林的组织传播 达达主义继续在其他城市发展
Those who participated in Club Dada in Berlin included Georg Grosz and Hannah Höch.
Collage was favoured over more traditional techniques by many Dada artists including Höch
与传统技艺相比 拼贴艺术得到更多达达艺术家的喜爱 包括霍克
who is best known for producing satirical and disturbing photomontages
like (untitled) from the collection: from an ethnographical museum.
Her work often focused on the situation in Weimar Germany from a woman’s perspective,
combining political commentary, gender issues,
questions of modernity and a critique of the bourgeoisie.
In the early 1920s, many Dada artists had converged in Paris
including Arp, Ernst, Duchamp and Picabia,
包括阿普尔 恩斯特 杜尚和毕卡比亚
where Andre Breton and others had begun to formulate the ideas that would become Surrealism.
Although the movement was essentially brought to an end with the emergence of surrealism,
Dada is now considered a watershed moment in 20th-century art.
In the 1960s artists like Joseph Beuys were also referred to as Neo-dadists
20世纪60年代 因为提倡“有生命的艺术 反对无生命艺术”
for their promotion of ‘living, anti-art.’
Joseph Beuys 和几个艺术家被认为是新达达主义者
Artists influenced by Dada’s radical ideas reached beyond the visual arts and into music,
受达达激进思想的影响 艺术家们向视觉艺术之外发展 进入音乐领域
with the likes of Frank Zappa and David Bowie using dadaist techniques,
他们和Frank Zappa及David Bowie一起
collaging lyrics and musical composition.
Bowie also famously showed the continuing impact of dada through costume.
Developed amidst the darkness of World War One,
this anti-art movement had its focal point in the nonsensical and absurd.
Dadaism echoed the marked disillusionment of the time
and concerned itself with the absence of meaning and the inevitability of chance in life events.
If being anti-art means rejecting the styles and sensibilities of the day
to make way for fresh thinking and approaches…
what artistic struggle could there be.