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什么是立体主义

What is Cubism? Art Movements & Styles

《苏格兰国家美术馆》
Cubism is often credited as being one of the most avant-garde,
立体主义常被称为艺术运动中最前卫
groundbreaking and revolutionary art movements.
最具创新性和革新性的
But what exactly is Cubist art? And who were the Cubists?
但立体艺术是什么? 谁是立体主义者呢?
The two most pivotal artists, referred to as the ‘inventors of Cubism’
最核心的两位艺术家是“立体主义的创造者”
are France’s Georges Braque, and Spain’s Pablo Picasso.
他们是法国的乔治·布拉克和西班牙的巴勃罗·毕加索
Back in the early 1900s,
十九世纪初期
these two pioneers started to represent and depict their subject matter
这两位先驱开始同时
from multiple angles and viewpoints at the same time
从多角度多视角表现主题
rather than from a single fixed position, which had been the norm prior to that.
而不是按先前的规范 从某个固定角度表达主题
Despite the name of the iconic movement,
虽然这次标志性运动名为立体主义
neither Braque or Picasso ever painted cubes
但布拉克和毕加索都没有画过立方体
The term itself actually originated from a derogatory remark
这一术语实际上来源于
made by an art critic in 1908
1908年一位艺术评论家的负面评价
The critic had disparaged Braque by saying
这位评论家贬低布拉克道
the artist reduced everything ‘to geometric Schemas, to cubes’.
这位艺术家将一切简化成几何图形 简化成立方体
The term soon became widespread.
这一词语广泛传播开来
Cubism was born.
立体主义就此诞生
Cubist techniques were evident throughout all of Picasso’s work at this time.
这段时期毕加索所有作品都展示了立体主义者的技法
‘Tête’ for instance is one of his most celebrated artworks
例如《头像》是他最负盛名的艺术作品
and the most abstract of all of his cubist collages
是他所有立体主义拼贴的最抽象表达
The half circle drawn in charcoal depicts the profile of a head.
用炭笔画出的半圆代表头部
The small circle and diagonal line with the arc represent an eye and nose.
小圆和对角线及弧形代表一只眼睛和鼻子
The pasted on elements represent the face, hair, and neck.
拼贴元素代表脸 头发和颈部
Within a few years, both Braque and Picasso
几年后 布拉克和毕加索
began to incorporate letters into their Cubist works.
开始在立体主义作品中融入字母
Braque’s ‘Le Bougeoir’ meaning ‘The Candlestick’ from 1911
布拉克1911年的作品“烛台”
is a very early example of one of his paintings to include lettering.
是他最早使用字母的作品
The purpose of this lettering was to question the relationship
字母的目的是对文字 图像
between words, pictures, and the objects they represent.
及它们所代表的物体间关系提出疑问
Towards the top of the painting is a candle
画作的最顶端是蜡烛
which helps to identify the shape below as a candlestick.
以助我们辨别下方的形状是烛台
A simple clay pipe, the kind Braque smoked, lies to the centre right,
简单的黏土烟斗 和布拉克使用的一样 出现在中间偏右的位置
and below that are a bobbin, and a pair of scissors.
下方是线轴和一副剪刀
Within a few years, a small group of artists based in Paris
几年以后 巴黎的一小群艺术家
including Fernand Léger, Robert Delaunay, and Sonia Delaunay
包括费尔南·莱热 罗伯特·德劳内和索妮娅·德劳内
were following the lead of Braque and Picasso’s abstract art.
追随布拉克和毕加索引领的抽象艺术
They wanted to emphasise the point that the painting is a flat surface
他们想强调画作是平面的
while the things they represented were three-dimensional.
而他们想表现的是三维的
So instead of a choosing a fixed perspective,
因此 他们没有选择从固定角度表现主题
and presenting views as if seen through a window
而像是透过窗户看进去那样
they painted motifs as if seen from several different angles at once.
他们绘成的图形好像是同时从不同角度观察而来
The Cubist style quickly spread across Europe and America
立体主义风格很快在欧洲和美洲流传开来
with particular popularity burgeoning in Russia
尤其是在俄罗斯迅速流行开来
where the style corresponded and chimed with newly forming revolutionary ideals.
这种风格与新形成的革命理想相得益彰
In Scotland the work of artists like William Crozier
在苏格兰 威廉·克罗齐的作品中
also displayed a strong affinity with Cubism
也显示了对立体主义的强烈喜爱
as can be seen in this painting of Edinburgh from the late 1920s.
可以从这幅19世纪20年代爱丁堡的画作中看出来
Cubism soon splintered and morphed into various different styles
立体主义很快在各国分化
across numerous different countries.
转变为不同的艺术形式
The Italians had Futurism, the British had Vorticism
像意大利的未来主义 英国的漩涡主义
the Russians had Suprematism and Constructivism
俄罗斯的至上主义和构成主义
it also inspired and influenced movements around the world in different creative disciplines
还激励和影响了全球不同创造性领域的运动
such as architecture, music, and literature.
例如在建筑 音乐和文学方面
Given the far reach and impact of the movement
鉴于此项运动的深远影响
and its many exciting and important offshoots
及其重要而精彩的衍生流派
the case can easily be made for Cubism as being the most
立体主义当之无愧为
radical and influential art movement of the 20th century.
20世纪最激进 影响最大的艺术运动
The Cubists constructed new realities –
立方主义者构建新的现实
moving away from traditional ideas of representation leading to abstraction.
从传统观念的表象迈向了抽象
《苏格兰国家美术馆》

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视频概述

立体主义兴起于20世纪,在全球产生了广泛的影响,启发激励了文学、建筑等领域的艺术运动。毕加索和布拉克是立体主义的核心人物。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

亮晶晶

审核员

审核员SJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6ZT1705Slw

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