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如何定义犯罪 – 译学馆
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如何定义犯罪

What is crime?

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开放式学习
犯罪本质上是一个有争议的概念
A crime is an essentially contestedconcept.
对于犯罪是什么 并没有一个统一的定义
So it’s something where there is no universally agreed definition of what a crime is.
但无论如何 从法律角度来考量犯罪
However, the most straightforward way of thinking about crime
是最直接的一种方式
is to look at it in terms of a legalistic perspective
那么犯罪就是某些违法的行为
and that is, is that a crime is something which is illegal.
是悖于法律的行为
It’s against the law.
是违反刑法的行为
It’s against the criminal law
当然这些行为就会赋予“犯罪”一定的特点
and also it will have certain aspects to it.
那么犯罪就具有刑事危害的特点
So it will have an aspect of criminal harm
也有需要承担刑事责任的特点
and it will havean aspect of criminal blame.
但是有趣的是
Interestingly though,
很多人对法律角度的定义有所质疑
many people have actually questionedthis legalistic definition.
首先 仅从法律角度的定义是有局限的
First of all, because it’s always going to be partial
是以一个很小的概念来定义什么是犯罪
and determined within a very small kind of idea of what is crime.
如果有的行为不是违法的
If something isn’t illegal,
尽管我们认为这些行为是错误的
then albeit we might see it as wrong,
是有问题的 或者是有害的
or problematic or harmful
我们却不能将这些行为定义为犯罪
but it’s not going to actually be something which we can define as a crime.
因此很多人想要解构犯罪的法律定义
So many people have looked tounpack that legal definition,
并且质疑什么才是刑事危害这一概念
have questioned the very notions of what is and what isn’t criminal harm
也围绕着刑事责任的概念展开质疑
and have also questioned notions around criminal blame
以及讨论这些概念的优缺点
and both the strengthsand weaknesses of that side of things.
有些人甚至更进一步
Some people have even gone as far to say
他们说犯罪是统计学概念
that a crime is a statist category,
或者说犯罪是由国家定义的
either that it’s defined by the state
并且暗含着一定的利益
and it’s infused with certain interests,
主张
ideas
和权力关系
and power relations
这一定义反映了强势群体的利益
which reflect the interests of the powerful.
它反映了社会上那些既得利益群体的利益
It reflects the interests of those who have something to lose in society
但它并不一定会反映那些弱势群体或者在社会底层的人的利益
where it does not necessarily reflect the interests of those who are powerless or those at the bottom end of society.
因此 犯罪逻辑被认为是强加的
And hence, the crime logic is seen as imposed.
只是一种被提出的概念
It’s something which is placedas a category,
作为产生意义和理解的一种方式
as a way of generating meanings and understandings
有些人认为犯罪逻辑本身就自成一个问题
and some have argued that actually is a problem in itself
我们甚至不需要考虑犯罪的逻辑
and that we shouldn’t necessarily even think about the logic of crime,
因为犯罪本身就会为我们找到某些解决方法
because actually crime will lead us to certain pathways of solutions,
比如惩罚之类的方法
such as punishment.
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犯罪就是违反刑法的行为吗?或者还有其它的定义吗?

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