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颜色究竟是什么? – 译学馆
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颜色究竟是什么?

What is color? - Colm Kelleher

生活最显著的特点之一就是生活是多彩的。
One of the most striking properties about life is that it has color.
我们把光线看做成波可以帮助我们理解这种颜色的现象。
To understand the phenomenon of color, it helps to think about light as a wave.
但是,在我们理解这些之前,
But, before we get to that,
我们来谈谈通常意义上的波。
let’s talk a little bit about waves in general.
想象一下,你坐在大海中的一艘船中,看着水中的瓶塞上下浮动。
Imagine you’re sitting on a boat on the ocean watching a cork bob up and down in the water.
你注意到的第一件事就是瓶塞在重复自己的动作。
The first thing you notice about the motion is that it repeats itself.
瓶塞沿着同样的轨迹,反反复复,上下又上下。
The cork traces the same path over and over again… up and down, up and down.
这种有重复性的,周期性的动作就是波的特征。
This repetitive or periodic motion is characteristic of waves.
之后你还会发现其他的一些事情。。。
Then you notice something else…
使用秒表,来测量下,这个瓶塞经过最高点到最低点,
using a stopwatch, you measure the time it takes for the piece of cork
再到最高点的时间。
to go over its highest position down to its lowest and then back up again.
假设这耗时2秒钟,
Suppose this takes two seconds.
用物理术语来说,你刚刚测量了瓶塞振动波的周期。
To use the physics jargon, you’ve measured the period of the waves that cork is bobbing on.
也就是说,一个波完成整个一次性动作所花费的时间。
That is, how long it takes a wave to go through its full range of motion once.
用另一种方式,通过计算波的频率同样可以得到相同的信息。
The same information can be expressed in a different way by calculating the wave’s frequency.
频率,顾名思义,意思是这种波的周期频繁程度。
Frequency, as the name suggest, tells you how frequent the waves are.
也就是,1秒之内出现多少次。
That is, how many of them go by in one second.
如果你知道一个完整的波的完成需要的秒数,
If you know how many seconds one full wave takes,
那么就很容易得出1秒之内有多少个波经过。
then it’s easy to work out how many waves go by in one second.
在这个事件中,因为每个波耗时2秒钟,所以频率就是0.5波/s。
In this case, since each wave takes 2 seconds, the frequency is 0.5 waves per second.
介绍了这么多关于瓶塞震动,那么光和颜色呢?
So enough about bobbing corks… what about light and color?
如果光是一种波,那么它一定有频率,对吧?
If light is a wave, then it must have a frequency. Right?
那么..没错,光线就是有频率。
Well… yes, it does.
而且也说明了对于我们肉眼能察觉到的光我们已经有了个称呼。
And it turns out that we already have a name for the frequency of the light that our eyes detect.
那就是颜色。
It’s called color.
没错。颜色就是准确测量光波波动频率的测量手段。
That’s right. Color is nothing more than a measure of how quickly the light waves are waving.
如果我们人眼足够快,我们就有可能直接察觉到周期,
If our eyes were quick enough, we might be able to observe this periodic motion directly,
就像我们看到海洋里的瓶塞一样。
like we can with the cork and the ocean.
但是我们能看到的光线的频率是那么高,
But the frequency of the light we see is so high,
光波在一秒钟上下波动约400万亿次,
it waves up and down about 400 million million times a second,
尽管我们不能看到,但我们可以分辨,通过它的颜色,它的频率是什么。
that we can’t possibly see it as a wave. But we can tell, by looking at its color, what its frequency is.
我们看到的最慢的光是红色,最高频率是紫色。
The lowest frequency light that we can see is red and the highest frequency is purple.
所有其他频率连在一起形成了一个持续的光带叫做可视光谱
In between all the other frequencies form a continous band of color, called the visible spectrum.
因此,在你桌上假设有一只黄色的铅笔
So, what if you had a yellow pencil sitting on your desk?
因此,太阳发送了所有颜色,所以所有重要的。
Well, the sun emits all colors of light, so light of all colors is hitting your pencil.
铅笔看起来是黄色,因为反射的黄色最明显。
The pencil looks yellow because it reflects yellow light more than it reflects the other colors.
那其他的蓝色,紫色,和红色呢?
What happens to the blue, purple and red light?
它们被吸收,并且它们携带的能量转变成热量
They get absorbed and the energy they are carrying is turned into heat.
对于其他的颜色也是相似的。
It is similar with objects of other colors.
蓝色物体反射蓝光,红色物体反射红光等等。
Blue things reflect blue light, red things reflect red light and so on.
白色物料反射了所有颜色的光,
White objects reflect all colors of light,
对比来说,黑色的事物确实能够在所有频段反射和吸收。
while black things do exactly the opposite and absorb at all frequencies.
插一句来讲,这就是为什么在一个晴朗的天气穿上Metallica的t恤衫是不舒服的。
This – by the way – is why it’s uncomfortable to wear your favorite Metallica t-shirt on a sunny day.

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