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ATP是什么?

What is ATP?

阿米巴姐妹
ATP. We love it.
我们爱ATP
You’ll find ATP in so much of our science art…
你会在我们的很多科学作品中发现ATP……
whether it’s a GIF of a mitochondrion or cell transport…
不论是线粒体还是细胞转运相关的GIF中……
or a comic about cellular respiration or fermentation,
或者是关于细胞呼吸或发酵的漫画中
you’ll see ATP mentioned.
都会提到ATP
So why the big deal?
为什么ATP这么重要?
Why is it all over the place?
为什么哪儿都有它?
Many times students will get in their mind that
很多时候学生都会想到
it is an energy currency of some kind.
它是某种能量货币
When I first started studying biology, I noticed that in textbooks
当我刚开始学习生物学的时候 我注意到在教科书里
it’s often represented as like this starburst thing or thunderbolt,
它常常被描绘成这样的星爆状 或者是闪电状
and you know, I guess in my mind I imagined it was
你知道吗 我当时在脑中猜测
like some big blast of energy that helped the cells do things.
ATP就像巨大的爆炸来为细胞活动提供能量
And by do things, I mean that we need ATP to do many cellular processes.
也就是说 我们需要ATP来完成许多细胞过程
Examples include active transport
比如主动运输
such as when a cell is trying to move something against its concentration gradients.
当一个细胞试图逆浓度梯度转运一些物质时
Or its role in muscle contraction
或者是肌肉收缩时
with the actin and myosin cross bridge
ATP在肌动蛋白和肌球蛋白交叉桥中的作用
we need another video for that.
想要详细介绍的话 一期视频根本不够
ATP is critical for many types of cell signaling
ATP在多种细胞信号转导过程中至关重要
you need your cells to be able to communicate.
而我们需要细胞之间能够相互沟通
Those are all just some examples.
这都只是一些例子
But what is ATP?
但是ATP到底是什么?
How do we get it?
它是如何产生的?
And…how does it work?
又是怎么发挥作用的?
Those are the basics of what we’re going to focus on
这些就是我们在这个短视频中
in this short video.
将关注的基本问题
So what is ATP?
那么 ATP是什么?
If you remember the four major biomolecules
如果你还记得四个主要生物分子
ATP would fit in with the nucleic acids.
那么ATP将归于核酸一类
Yes, like DNA and RNA.
没错 类似于DNA和RNA
ATP is a nucleotide derivative
ATP是一种核苷酸衍生物
so it has those three parts you’d see in DNA or RNA nucleotides:
因此它有三个在DNA或RNA核苷酸中也可以看到的结构:
phosphate, sugar, base,
磷酸基 五碳糖 碱基
but it actually has 3 phosphates.
但它拥有3个磷酸基团
ATP is short for its full name, “adenosine triphosphate”
ATP是“三磷酸腺苷”的缩写
This fancy name is helpful
这个花里胡哨的名字非常有用
as it tells you that it contains the nitrogenous base known as adenine,
因为它告诉你这一结构含有名为腺嘌呤的含氮碱基
and three phosphates—
以及三个磷酸基团——
hence the “tri” in adenosine triphosphate.
即三磷酸腺苷中的“三”
Its sugar is ribose.
它的糖基是核糖
How do you get ATP?
怎么获得ATP?
All cells need ATP
所有细胞都需要ATP
and so they need processes that can be used to generate it.
所以他们需要一个生产ATP的流程
But the process can differ.
但过程可能不同
It might involve oxygen such as aerobic cellular respiration.
它也许需要氧气 如细胞的有氧呼吸
It might not involve oxygen
也可能不需要氧气
such as anaerobic respiration or fermentation.
如无氧呼吸或发酵
During cellular respiration,
在细胞呼吸过程中
plants break down the glucose they MADE from photosynthesis
植物分解它们在光合作用中产生的葡萄糖
to make ATP.
来生成ATP
During cellular respiration,
在细胞呼吸过程中
animals break down the glucose they CONSUMED to make ATP
动物分解它们摄入的葡萄糖来制造ATP
And it’s not just plants and animals;
不仅仅是植物和动物
bacteria, fungi, protists, and archaea—they all need to make ATP.
细菌 真菌 原生动物和古细菌–它们都需要生成ATP
We have a video on cellular respiration
我们制作过一段介绍细胞呼吸的视频
and another one on fermentation
及一段关于发酵的的视频
that can be helpful to understand the process,
对理解这些过程很有帮助
but one thing that we do want to mention about making ATP
此外我们还想提到的另一件重要事情就是
is that it is important to understand it is part of a cycle.
ATP是一个循环的一部分
With the ATP cycle you have ATP,
通过ATP循环 你可以获得ATP
which can be hydrolyzed, releasing energy
而ATP可以被水解并释放能量
and losing one of its phosphates in this process.
在这一过程中它失去一个磷酸基团
A process like cellular respiration
像细胞呼吸这样的过程
can provide the energy needed to add a phosphate to ADP
可以提供向ADP添加磷酸基团所需的能量
in order to regenerate ATP again,
使ATP能够再生
which is important as ATP can be used quickly.
这一过程非常重要 因为ATP消耗得很快
This brings us to how ATP is able to work.
这就引出了下一个内容:ATP是如何工作的
So how does ATP work?
那么ATP是如何工作的呢?
It’s not just about ATP being hydrolyzed and releasing energy.
这就不仅仅是ATP的水解和能量释放了
It’s more than that.
还涉及很多其他过程
Ok, honestly, it’s more than our short video can go into
好吧 老实说 这已经不是我们一个短片能够涵盖的了
, which is why we provide some further reading links
所以我们提供了一些拓展链接
, but let’s look at some basics.
首先让我们先来了解一些基本知识
So when ATP is hydrolyzed,
当ATP被水解时
meaning here it involves the addition of water,
“水解”意味着这里需要水的参与
it’s not really that the bond between this second and third phosphate itself
这并不意味着 第二磷酸基团和第三磷酸基团之间的结合
is a super strong bond.
是一个超级强的键
It’s actually more that the bond between the second and third phosphate
实际上第二和第三磷酸基团之间的结合更明显的效果是
contributes to this ATP being unstable.
导致ATP不稳定
These phosphates with their negative charges don’t like being arranged like this.
这些带负电荷的磷酸基团不喜欢这样排列
The change from ATP losing its third phosphate
ATP失去第三磷酸基团
to become the more stable ADP
变为更加稳定的ADP的变化过程
is an exergonic reaction
是一种放能反应
and releases free energy.
并释放自由能
A popular example for understanding ATP
理解ATP的一个常见方法
is to use the spring illustration.
是用弹簧来解释
Like a wire spring.
ATP像一个钢丝弹簧
Consider how you might compress the spring
想想你怎么压缩弹簧
ATP would be modeled by that compressed spring-
ATP就像是压紧的弹簧
–and then you would let it go until it just goes into this relaxed state,
然后你把弹簧松开 直到它恢复成这种放松的状态
which would be represented by ADP.
这种状态就像是ADP
When ATP is hydrolyzed,
当ATP被水解时
if the energy was just released
如果仅仅是释放了能量
it will likely not be useful for a cell
但没有和需要它的物质结合在一起的话
if it’s not actually coupled to something that needs it.
它将对细胞毫无用处
Thankfully, the energy release can be coupled to endergonic processes
幸好 ATP的能量释放过程可以和细胞所需要的
that the cell needs to do.
吸能过程相耦合
This can occur when the phosphate from the ATP
当ATP中的磷酸基团被转移到将要发生反应的分子上时
is transferred to a molecule that is going to be acted upon.
就会发生这种情况
For example, this cell transport protein here
比如 这个细胞转运蛋白
is supposed to move some kind of molecule against its concentration gradient.
要逆浓度梯度转运一些分子
Recall if it was passive transport,
回想一下如果是被动运输
these molecules would be moving from high to low concentration
这些分子将从高浓度向低浓度移动
but in active transport thanks to ATP
但是由于ATP的作用 在主动转运中
this protein can move them against the gradient.
这种蛋白质可以逆浓度梯度转运
When the phosphate is transferred to this protein,
当磷酸基团被转移到这个蛋白质时
we say the protein has been phosphorylated.
我们称这个蛋白质已经被磷酸化了
Sounds powerful.
这听起来充满能量
We can say, in our example,
可以说 在我们的例子中
that this protein is more reactive
这种状态的蛋白质活性更强
and less stable in this form,
且更加不稳定
this phosphorylated intermediate state.
当这种磷酸化的中间状态
When it reverts into its original, more stable shape,
恢复到原来的 更稳定的形态时
it can assist in moving them the other direction.
它可以帮助分子们向另一个方向移动
So from marveling at the beating of a single cilia hair,
所以从一根纤毛的摆动
or chromosomes being separated in cell division,
到染色体在细胞分裂中的分离
or binding the correct amino acid on a tRNA, I could go on-——
或者是特定的氨基酸与tRNA的结合 我还能说出很多
we hope that little ATP symbol will mean something every time you see it.
我们希望当你看到这些奇迹的时候能够想到小小的ATP在其中的作用
Well, that’s it for the Amoeba Sisters, and we remind you to stay curious.
这就是今天《阿米巴姐妹》的全部内容 我们希望你们能一直保持好奇
stay curious!
保持好奇!
how do you guys like the frendship bracelets i made?
你们觉得我做的友谊手镯怎么样?
在www.amobasisters.com上可以找到下面这些栏目及其他内容!

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视频概述

介绍ATP是什么,如何获得ATP以及发挥作用的方式

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23ZzI6WZS28

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