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第三代人工智能究竟产生了怎样的突破? – 译学馆
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第三代人工智能究竟产生了怎样的突破?

What is Artificial Intelligence Exactly?

您正在收看的是冷流科技
You are watching ColdFusion TV
冷流科技
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大家好 欢迎再次收看ColdFusion视频栏目
Hi,welcome to our ColdFusion video
此刻有很多网民在讨论人工智能
there’s a lot of buzz around artificial intelligence at the moment
而人工智能的本来定义似乎被人们遗忘了
and term A.I. seems to be thrown around a lot
但是它究竟是什么意思
but what is it exactly
为了弄清楚它的意思 我想围绕这个主题来录一段短视频
to clear things up I just want to do a quick video around this topic
首先 让我我们来看看它的定义
first of all, let’s look at the definition
为了避免混淆 我们必须回到最开始的时候
to avoid confusion we have to go back to the earliest
从人工智能最最纯粹的定义开始
and hence purest definition of A.I.
从它第一次被提出开始
from the time when it was first coined
人工智能的官方定义
the official idea and definition of A.I.
是由约翰·麦卡锡于1955年
was first coined by John Mccarthy in 1955
在达特茅斯会议上首次提出的
at the Dartmouth Conference
当然 这些关于人工智能的大量研究
of course, those plenty research work done on
是基于前人之上的 比如阿兰·图灵
A.I. by others such as Alan Turing before this
但是1955年之前他们从事的一直是一个不明确的领域
but what they were working on was an undefined field before1955
好吧 这就是麦卡锡所提议的
ok, so here’s what McCarthy proposed
(引用)
(quote)
“学习的每一个方面
“every aspect of learning
或者智力的其他任何特征
or any other feature of intelligence
都能在本质上
can in principle
都可以如此精准地被描述出来
be so precisely described that
因此 人类才能制造出一台机器来促进人工智能的发展
a machine can be made to stimulate it
同时 人们也将试图寻找运用
And attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language
抽象性和概念性语言的机器的方法
form abstractions and concepts
以解决人类现在所遇到的各种问题
solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans
并提高自己
and improve themselves”
翻译
translation
事实上
in essence
人工智能是一种能解决问题的机器
A.I. is a machine with the ability to solve problems that
而这些问题通常都是人类
are usually done by us humans
运用自己的智慧来解决的
with our natural intelligence
当一台电脑学会如何在解决这些问题上提升自己的时候
a computer will demonstrate a form of intelligence when it learns how to improve itself
它就会展现出一种智慧
at solving these problems
为了更加详细地描述人工智能
to elaborate further
1995年有人建议
the 1955 proposal
将人工智能的定义概括为七个方面
defines seven areas of A.I.
当然 今天的定义范围比这更多 但是这是最开始的七个层面
today this surly more but here are the original seven
第一 模拟人脑的高级功能
1.Simulating higher functions of the human brain
第二 使用通用语言给计算机编程
2.Programming a computer to use general language
第三 在某种程度上设置了一种假想的神经元 使得它们形成一些概念
3.Arranging hypothetical neurons in a manner enabling them to form concepts
第四 决定与测量问题复杂程度的方式
4.A way to determine and measure problem complexity
第五 自我提升
5.Self- improvement
第六 抽象概念:定义为处理思想而不是事件本身的技能
6.Abstraction:Defined as the quality of dealing with ideas rather than events
第七 不可测性和创造性
7.Randomness and creativity
六十年后
after 60 years
我相信我们能
I think realistically
在一定程度上
we have completed the
真正地实现
language measure problem complexity
通过语言测试问题的复杂性
and self- improvement
以及自我改进
to at least some degree
然而
however
人类才开始探索不可测性和创造力
randomness and creativity is just starting to be explored
今年
this year
我们已经看了一些网络脚本事件
we’ve seen couples of web episode scripts
微电影和长片 这些都是由人工智能参与
short films and even a feature- length film co- written or
或是独立撰写的
completely written by A.I.
它们并不是真的有意义 但其中的这些小片段却能给你带来欢乐
they don’t really make sense but here’s a few snippets for your entertainment anyway
“我要离开了”
“I need to leave”
“我不属于这个世界”
“I am not free of the world”
“是的 也许我应该把它从他身边带走”
“yes,perhaps I should take it from him”
“我不会采取任何行动”
“I’m not gonna do something”
“这不是一个梦”
“it’s not a dream”
“但是我有时间待在那”
“but I’ve got a time to stay there”
“我认为你可以回到桌子上去了”
“well, I still think you could be back on the table”
“这是一件很恐怖的事情 我不敢说”
“it’s a damn thing scared to say”
“没有什么过不去的”
“nothing is going to be a thing”
从现在开始我的脸的
from now make me so longer of the face
长度比例变得更大了
in the comprise
一个人是世界上
and a person is what the world
工业界建设
on the country of have the construction
中的一员
of the mic
可能是前面那个人吗?
could the person in front are
他们是怎么处理其中的一部分的
and how they deal to part of them
(尼克·杨的脸)
(Nick Young face)
是的 你在定义中
ok, so in the definition
听到了“智能”这个单词
you heard the word “intelligence”
什么是智能
what is intelligence
在关于人工智能的几本书籍里都提到过杰克·科普兰 据他称
well, according to Jack Copeland who was written several books on A.I.
关于智能的几个重要因素就是
some of the most important factors of intelligence are
一 普遍化的学习
generalization learning
是指在未曾遭遇过的环境下能够表现得更好的一种学习方式
that is learning that enables to learn on to be able to perform better in situations not perviously encountered
二 推理
reasoning
推理就是为某个情境得出适当的结论
to reason is to draw conclusions appropriate to the situation and head
三 解决问题
problem solving
给定某一发令员
given such and such starter
找到未知的事物
find X
第四 洞察力
perception
分析一个丑闻环境
analyzing a scandal environment
分析客体的特征以及它们之间的关系
and analyzing features and relationships between objects
无人驾驶汽车就是一个例子
self- driving cars are an example
五 语言理解
language understanding
通过遵循语法和与人类相似的其他规则来掌握语言
understanding language by following syntax and another rules similarly to a human
好吧 现在我们已经对人工智能和智力有一定的了解了
ok, so now we have an understanding of A.I. and intelligence
在大脑中将人工智能定义整各在一起并进行巩固
to bring it together a bit and solidify a concept in your mind of what A.I. is
这里是人工智能的几个例子
here’s a few of examples of A.I.
机器学习
machine learning
计算机视觉
computer vision
自然语言处理
natural language processing
机器人
robotics
模式识别
pattern recognition
和知识管理
and knowledge management
在方法上面 也有不同类型的人工智能
there are also different types of artificial intelligence in terms of approach
比如
for example
强的人工智能和弱的人工智能
the strong A.I. and weak A.I.
强的人工智能通过建立系统来模仿人的大脑
strong A.I. is simulating the human brain
这种系统
by building system that think
在工作过程中会思考
and in the process
在某个特定的情况下
given us inside into how the brain works
人的大脑是怎么工作的
we’re nowhere near the stage yet
弱的的人工智能是指表现得像人类
weak A.I. is a system that behaves like a human
却没有向我们展现大脑工作过程的一种系统
but doesn’t give us an insight into how the brain works
IBM公司出品的
IBM’s Deep Blue
象棋电脑—深蓝就是一个例子
a chess-playing A.I. was an example
深蓝每次在象棋盘上移动一步之前 会进行上百万次的运算
it processes million of moves before it made any actual moves on the chess board
虽然它不会止步于此
it doesn’t stop there though
但人们在强的人工智能与弱的人工智能之间保持着一种新的中立态度
there’s exactly a new kind of middle ground between strong and weak A.I.
即这种系统的灵感来源于人类推理
this is where system is inspired by human reasoning
而人类却未能将其发展下去
but doesn’t have to stick to it
IBM公司的沃森也是一个例子
IBM’s Watson is an example
就像人类一样
like humans
沃森能够读出模式信息并提供证据
it reads a lot of information recognized the patterns and built up evidence to say
然后显示 —嘿 根据我所读出的信息
hey,I’m X percent confidence that
我百分之几确定 对于您提出的问题
this is the right solution to the question that you’ve asked me
这是正确的解决办法
from the information that I ‘ve read
如果你想对IBM公司出产的沃森有更多的了解
if you want to know more in IBM’s Watson
你可以现在点击释义或者
you can click on the annotation now or
下面说明书中的链接
the link in the description below
谷歌的深度学习法
Google’s deep learning in similar
就是通过使用中立网络来
as a mimic structure of the human brain
模仿人脑结构
by using neutral networks
但并不完全模仿大脑的功能
but doesn’t follow its function exactly
这种系统运用节点来充当人造神经元 以此来连接信息
the system uses nods that act artificial neurons connecting information
往深了说
going a little bit deeper
神经网络其实是机器学习的一个子设备
neural networks are actually a subset of machine learning
那么 什么是机器学习呢
so what’s machine learning then
机械学习指的是一种算法
machine learning refers to algorithms that
这种算法使得软件超时改善性能
enable software to improve its performance overtime
以获取更多数据
as obtains more data
这是通过输入输出进行编程的例子
this is programming by input output examples
而不仅仅是通过编码
rather than just coding
这样一来才更加有意义 举个例子吧
so this makes more sense let’s use an example
一个程序员可能不知道怎么给电脑编程使其拥有辨识一条狗的能力
a programmer would have no idea how to program a computer to recognize a dog
但是他可以创造一种人工智能型的程序,这种形式能够学习如何创建辨识狗的能力
but he can create a program with the form of intelligence that can learn to do so
如果他在程序中加上足够多的关于狗的
if he gives the program enough image data
图像数据
in the form of dogs
使之进行运算并学会辨识
and let it process and learn
当你显示一种它从未见过的狗的形象时
when you give the program an image of a dog that it’s never seen before
它就能够快速地告诉你—这是一条狗
it would be able to tell that it’s a dog with relative ease
好的 接下来我们来了解最后一个概念
ok, so before we finish just one last concept
大多数人工智能算法都是专家系统
most artificial intelligence algorithms are expert systems
那么什么是专家系统
so what’s an expert system
专家系统经常经常被引用的定义
the often- cited definition of an expert system
如下
is as follows
专家系统
an expert system
是一种在电脑中运用人类知识来解决
is a system that employs human knowledge in a computer to solve problems
通常只有人类家才能解决的问题的系统
that ordinarily require human expertise
总的来说
basically
就是知识数据库的实际运用
it’s the practical application of knowledge database
我们可以说才刚刚拥有第一个经过测试的非专家系统
we’ve arguably only just got the first proven non- expert system
(VCR)
this year???
Deepmind公司的AlphaGo
deep minds Alpha Go
Alpha Go不是一个专家系统
Alpha Go is not an expert system
这意味着它的算法可以为其他程序所运用
meaning that its algorithms could be used and applied to other things
Demis Hassabis是Deepmind的创始人之一
Demis Hassabis he was the co- creator of deep mind
他在谷歌博客上做了如下强调
highlighted this in a Google blog
(引言)
(quote)
我们很高兴能够控制Alpha Go
“we are thrilled to have mastered Go
并由此实现了人工智能最伟大的挑战之一
and thus achieved one of the grand challenges of AI.
然而
however
对于我们来说最重要的部分是
the most significant aspect of all this for us
Alpha Go并不仅仅是人工设计的专家系统
is that Alpha Go isn’t just an expert system built with hand- crafted rules
相反 它使用了常规的机器学习技术 弄清
instead it uses general machine learning techniques to figure out for itself
怎么赢”
how to win at Go”
他继续说道
he goes on
(引言)
(quote)
“因为我们使用的方法具有多方面用途
“because the methods we’ve used are general- purpose
我们希望有一天
our hope is that one day
它们能发展到帮助我们解决一些社会上最难
they could be extended to help us address some of society’s toughest
最急迫的问题 从气候模型到复杂的疾病分析
and most pressing problems from climate modelling to complex disease analysis”
换句话说
in other words
Alpha Go使用的算法
the algorithms that Alpha Go used to win go
可以用来作为解决复杂问题的基础
could serve as a basis to be applied to very complex problems
如果你想对 Alpha Go有更多的了解
if you want to know more about Alpha Go
现在点击英文注释
hit the annotation now
或者你可以点击说明书里的链接
or you can follow the link in the description
好的 现在我们将这些放在一起 总结我们所学的
alright so to bring this altogether and summarize all that we’ve learned
让我们来简明扼要地重复一下
let’s recap
什么是人工智能
so what is AI
通常的AI或人工智能
commonly AI or artificial intelligence
是一种学习怎么执行智能型或者需要人类来完成
is a machine or a computer program that learns how to do tasks that require forms of intelligence and usually done by humans
或者需要运用其他事物的任务的机器或电脑程序
and the other thing to take away
智能有各种形式 也有不同的方面
intelligence comes in many forms and has many different aspects
现在
at this time
我们仅仅拥有不同类型的人工智能 这些人工智能都是非常好的子设备
we just have many different types of AI that is a good particular subset of intelligence
无论如何 我希望现在都清楚了
so anyway, I hope that clears things up
因为有很多人不知道AI究竟是什么
as a lot of people were confused about what AI actually is
无论如何 感谢收看
so anyway, thanks for watching
给这个视频点个赞吧 如果你喜欢它 赞赏它 如果你第一次接触这种渠道
give this video some thumbs up if you like this and subscribe if you’re new to the channel
欢呼吧各位 这是你一直在观看的来自谷歌的 ColdFusion
cheers guys,this has been to Google you’ve been watching ColdFusion
下次视频中我们再见
and I’ll catch you again soon for the next video
祝你好运
have a good one
这里是 ColdFusion
ColdFusion
一种新的思维方式
is a new thinking

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