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过敏性鼻炎诊断及治疗

What is Allergic Rhinitis?

Allergic Rhinitis中的“Rhin”一词源自希腊语 意为鼻子
Allergic Rhinitis’Rhin’ comes from greek word meaning’nose’
而“itis”是炎症的意思
and’itis’ means inflammation.
因此Rhinitis的意思是”鼻的炎症”
so it means’Inflammation of the Nose’.
而“Allergic”意思是 它是由过敏源引起的
And’Allergic’ means it is caused by’Allergens’.
过敏源是一种可被鼻腔吸入
Allergens are anything harmless (or neutral)
存在于空气的无害 或不好不坏的物质
that can be inhaled in air by nose
它能引发超敏反应
and trigger excessive immune reaction.
常见的过敏源有花粉和灰尘
Common examples of Allergens include Pollenand dust.
一旦进入鼻腔就会与免疫系统遭遇
Once inside nose they will meet immune system
尤其是结合有IgE抗体的肥大细胞
particularly Mast cells attached to igE antibodies.
过敏源会与IgE抗体相结合
Allergen will bind to igE antibody
这时这些抗体会激活并使肥大细胞警觉
which will then activate and alert Mast cells.
对于正常人来说 这种反应是很轻微的
In a normal person the reaction is minimal.
但是对那些患过敏性鼻炎的人来说
But in those suffering from Allergic rhinitis
这种细胞会引发强烈的超敏反应
This cell over-reacts big time.
它通过释放组胺向周围细胞发出信号
It signals to all cells in surroundingby releasing’histamine’.
组胺会导致炎症
Histamine will now cause inflammation and swelling up
并且使鼻粘膜肿胀
of nasal mucosa which will then
然后产生大量的粘性分泌物
cause excessive mucus production.
从而导致流涕
This results in Nasal Drip.
过多的粘性分泌物会堵塞鼻腔内部两个重要通路
This excessive mucus production will block two very important structures opening in nose. 1:
一个是鼻泪管
Nasolacrimal duct:
这个管道的作用是把眼泪从眼部排入鼻腔
the purpose of this duct is to drain tears from eyes into nose.
但是一旦因为过敏性鼻炎被大量粘液堵塞
but once blocked by excessive mucus production by allergic rhinitis,
那你就会有泪汪汪的眼睛
now you will start having’Watery Eyes’
另一个结构是耳咽管
2: Eustachian Tube: This drains drainage from
中耳中的分泌液体从这条通路排出
middle ear, with it blocked too
如果它也被由过敏性鼻炎产生的过多粘液堵塞了
by excessive mucus production by allergic rhinitis,
你也会产生耳部不适感
now you will have stuffed ears sensationtoo.
最终 鼻腔的神经会受到刺激 从而导致打嚏
Finally the nerves in nasal cavity will start getting irritated and lead to sneezing.
对于有过敏性鼻炎的人来说
All of it will lead to difficulty in breathing
所有这些都会造成呼吸困难
for person suffering from Allergic rhinitis.
总之 过敏性鼻炎会导致
To summarize, Allergic rhinitis will leadto 1:
1:鼻粘膜充血肿胀 2:泪汪汪的眼睛
The swelling and congestion of Nasal Mucosa2: Watery Eyes 3:
3:耳塞 4:因粘液过多产生的流涕
Stuffed Ears4: Nasal drip due to excessive mucus production 5:
5:打喷嚏 6:呼吸困难
Sneezing6: Difficulty breathing
过敏性鼻炎诊断
For Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis:1) Patient History: usually the person complains
1)病史:通常人们会主诉以上所有提及的症状
of all symptoms mentioned above and
如果这些症状出现是
if the timing of these symptoms is
特发性的或是季节性的
specific and seasonal then we can
我们可以很容易诊断其为季节性过敏性鼻炎
easily reach a diagnosis of Seasonal allergic rhinitis
2)皮刺试验
2 ) Skin Prick Testing:
实验中 将过敏源用皮肤针刺进体内
in this test Allergen is introduced using a skin prick and reaction
然后根据人体反应来判断具体的过敏源
of body is seen to confirmAllergy to a particular allergen.
3)血液检查: A.全血嗜酸性粒细胞数量
3) Blood Tests:A) Total blood eosinophil count
正如血清总IgE
As with the total serum IgE,
嗜酸性粒细胞计数升高也是过敏性鼻炎诊断依据
an elevated eosinophil count supports the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis
B) 血清总IgE量
B) Total serum IgE
这种方法是测量血液中的IgE的总含量
this is a measurement of the total level of IgE in the blood,
血清IgE升高是过敏性鼻炎诊断依据
an elevated serum igE level supports allergic rhinitis diagnosis.
这项检测可以用放射性变应原吸附试验来测
This test can be performed using Radio Allergo sorbent Method
它也被称为“RAST试验”
hence is also called as’RAST test’
4.鼻腔分泌物涂片检查
4) Nasal Smear Test:
鼻腔分泌物涂片有时能帮助确诊过敏性鼻炎
A nasal smear can sometimes be helpful for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis.
样本中的分泌物和细胞是
A sample of secretions and cells is scraped
用一种特殊的探头
from the surface of the nasal mucosa using
从鼻粘膜表面刮取得来的
a special sampling probe.
治疗过敏性鼻炎需要
Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis is achieved
有针对性的处理过敏的各个过敏阶段
by targeting different steps in pathway to allergy:
1.避免接触过敏源
1) Avoid Allergens.
可以采取预防措施
This can be done by taking precautionary measures to avoid exposure,
避免与过敏源接触
for example Wearing Face
例如在花粉多的季节戴口罩
masks inPollen Season
2.减轻炎性反应
2 ) Decrease inflammation:
可以直接对鼻子粘膜使用类固醇类药物
This can be achieved by Steroids applied directly to nasal mucosa.
3.抗组胺类
3 ) Anti-Histamines:
它们通过阻断组胺受体
These target the action of histamines by blocking the Histamine receptors,
从而起到抗组胺的作用
thus stopping the action ofhistamine.
4.肥大细胞稳定剂类
4 ) Mast Cell stabilizers:
肥大细胞稳定剂是一类常用药物
Mast cell stabilizers are common medications used to prevent or
用于预防或控制某些过敏性疾病
control certain allergic disorders.
它们会堵住细胞膜上的钙通路
They block a calcium channel essential
那肥大细胞就基本上无法脱粒
for mast cell degranulation, stabilizing the cell
从而稳定了肥大细胞 阻止它释放组胺
and thereby preventing the release of histamine
5.免疫疗法
5) Immunotherapy:
当你通过打过敏针进行免疫疗法的时候
When you get immunotherapy in the form of allergy shots,
你的过敏性疾病专科医师或者非专科医生
your allergist or doctor injects
给你皮下注射少量过敏源
small doses of substances that you are allergicto (allergens) under your skin.
这会帮助你”适应”这个过敏源
This helps your body”get used to” the allergen,
这样就能减少或者减轻过敏性鼻炎的症状
which can result in fewer or less severe symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
希望你能对这节课感兴趣
hope you enjoyed this lesson too,
如果你从中受益了 请在众筹网站上支持我们
if you have benefited from it, please do Support us on
这样我们将来就可以经常推出同类型的课程
Patreon to enable us make such lessons morefrequently in future.
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Let’s make Medical Education Universal, Free,
变成大众的 免费的 紧跟医学前沿
State -of -The- Art and Available to every human
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being.
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Which will then help all healthcare
得到更好的保健教育 并且
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回报给社区更好的医疗服务
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成百上千的人受益 从而获得更好的健康保健
of millions of human beings get access to better healthcare.

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视频概述

过敏性鼻炎的症状以及如何好的防范和治疗过敏性鼻炎

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Teresa

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IokODX8n0Pw

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