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用化学解释药物上瘾 – 译学馆
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用化学解释药物上瘾

What is Addiction?

Addiction affects everybody
上瘾影响着每一个人
It’s the leading cause of accidental death in our society
它是我们的社会中意外死亡的首要原因
The world itself is derived from the ancient term for
这个单词本身起源于古罗马词语
“enslved by” or “bound to”
“被奴役”或者“被束缚”
Beating addiction is extremely tough.
克服瘾性是非常困难的
The drugs and behaviors that lead to addiction
那些导致上瘾的药物和行为
hijack the brain and wreak havoc in the body.
会控制大脑 并在身体中进行破坏
Time for some real chemistry talk.
让我们来讨论一下其背后的化学机理
(Reactions open)
《化学反应》
Nearly 24 million americans over the age of
几乎2400万12岁以上的美国人
12 are addicted to alcohol or other drugs.
对酒精或其它药物上瘾
That’s almost the population of Texas.
这几乎是徳克萨斯州的总人口
Years ago, many people thought that
多年以前 很多人认为
addiction was just sign of a flawed character
上瘾只是一种性格缺陷
or a lack of willpower,
或者是意志力缺失的表现
relegated to hobos
进而使人沦为流浪汉
or hilarious Boston bar-dwelling drunkards.
或是滑稽的常驻酒吧的酒鬼
But we now know that’s not it
但是我们现在知道了那并非事实
Brain chamistry plays a big part
大脑的化学原理发挥了巨大作用
It could be alcohol, a jelly donut, romantic encounter
比如酒精 果冻甜甜圈 一场浪漫的邂逅
or all kinds of other stuff.
或是类似的其它东西
No matter what it is,
无论它是什么
the things that make you feel good
那些让你感觉舒适的事物
are processed through the reward seeking pathway in the brain.
都经过大脑中奖励寻求路径的处理
A region deep in the brain called the ventral tegmental area
在大脑深处 一个叫做腹侧被盖区的区域
releases a “feel good” chemical messenger called dopamine
会释放一种让人感觉良好 叫做多巴胺的化学信使
to a region higher up in the brain called the nucleus accumbens.
到达大脑上部一个叫做伏隔核的区域
This region is involved in aspects of emotion and motivation.
这个区域主要与情感和激励有关
As dopamine surges through the nucleus accumbens,
当多巴胺通过伏隔核时
we feel a surge of pleasurable excitement and energy.
我们感到愉悦和充满活力
The surge of dopamine also makes us
同时 多巴胺的激增促使我们
want to do whatever we just did again.
想要去重复我们刚才所做的一切
Psychoactive drugs like amphetamines and cocaine supersize this reaction,
像安非他命和可卡因这样的精神类药物增强了这个反应
increasing the amount of available dopamine in the brain by as much as ten times.
使大脑中的可用多巴胺量增加到几乎十倍
The resulting euphoric “rush” or “high” recalibrates the brain,
由此产生的“亢奋”或者“快感” 改变了大脑
making it think that this higher level of dopamine is the new normal.
让大脑以为更多的多巴胺是新的正常水平
This sets some people on a course toward drug abuse.
这让一些人走上药物上瘾的道路
If a person continues using drugs,
如果一个人继续使用药物
the brain adapts to these overwhelming surges
大脑将适应这些激增的多巴胺水平
by reducing the number of dopamine receptors
适应方法是减少多巴胺的受体
and making the existing receptors less sensitive to dopamine.
并且使现存的受体变得对多巴胺不那么敏感
This has a double-whammy effect on drug users.
这对药物使用者是是一种双重打击
Fewer dopamine receptors and lower dopamine sensitivity,
更少的多巴胺受体和更低的多巴胺敏感度
means a lower ability to enjoy other everyday activities,
意味着药物使用者很难去享受其它日常活动
like eating donuts.
比如吃甜甜圈
In other words, you need more of a drug food or certain activity
换句话说 你需要更多的药物或者特定的活动
to get the same pleasurable rush.
进而获得同样的快感
For drug addicts, that might mean more amphetamines or cocaine
对药物成瘾者 那可能意味着需要更多的安非他命或可卡因
to get your brain to produce that surge of dopamine again.
才能让大脑的多巴胺水平再次激增
If you try to quit, you can go into withdrawal.
如果尝试停药 可能会产生戒断症状
Think about it,
想象一下
if the drug or activity that was at the controls of your brain is suddenly gone
控制着你大脑的药物或活动突然消失了
the brain has no idea what to do.
你的大脑将会陷入混乱
It’s like someone hopping off the otherside of a seesaw.
这就像有人突然从跷跷板的另一端跳下
Your dopamine levels crash
你的多巴胺水平崩溃了
and your system goes out of whack.
然后 你的身体系统就紊乱了
Depressants like alcohol chemically slow down your brain.
像酒精这种镇静剂会在化学上让大脑变迟钝
Alcohol inhibits a molecule called glutamate, which is an excitatory transmitter.
酒精会抑制兴奋性递质谷氨酸分子
It also boosts GABA, which slows down brain activity.
酒精还会促进γ-氨基丁酸 一种使大脑迟钝的物质
To counteract the effects of the depressant,
为了抵消这种抑制作用
your brain has to produce more adrenaline, more norepinephrine,
大脑不得不产生更多肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素
to keep you alert and focused.
以保持警觉和专注
When you’re not drunk,
当你没喝醉时
suddenly you don’t need that boost,
突然间 你不需要那种促进作用了
but ti’s there anyway.
但兴奋物质还在那儿
This can cause tremors, nausea, difficulty breathing
这会引起颤抖 恶心 呼吸困难
anxiety and heart palpitations
焦虑以及心悸
Over time, addiction can cause permanent damage to the brain.
久而久之 成瘾会对大脑造成永久性损伤
But this cycle can be broken,
但是这个循环是可以被打破的
and recovering addicts can go on to lead happy and productive lives.
康复者可以继续过上快乐并有成效的生活
Bottom line, if you know someone who is addicted to something
重要的是 如果你知道有人对有些东西成瘾
Anything, get them help.
给予他们力所能及的帮助
There are some great links on recovery and other resources in the description below.
在下面的说明里有关于康复和一些其它资源的链接
Be safe out there, chemheads.
一定要确保安全 化学头脑们
Speaking of things that are addictive,
说到易上瘾的东西
check out our episodes on iPhones and pizza.
看一下我们的手机和披萨吧
And for more weekly chemistry videos,
想要更多每周化学视频
make sure to hit that subscribe button.
一定要点订阅键哦

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视频概述

该视频用化学原理解释了人们对某些东西成瘾的机制。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6I3CHhBGeQ

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