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什么是抽象表现主义? – 译学馆
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什么是抽象表现主义?

What is abstract expressionism? - Sarah Rosenthal

参观当代美术馆时
If you visit a museum with a collection of modern and contemporary art,
你可能时常会想
you’re likely to see works that sometimes elicit the response,
“这也叫艺术?我家猫都会!”
“My cat could make that, so how is it art?”
抽象表现主义 或称纽约画派
A movement called Abstract Expressionism, also known as the New York School,
尤其容易给人这种感觉
gets this reaction particularly often.
抽象表现主义始于1943年
Abstract Expressionism started in 1943
在二战后继续发展
and developed after the end of World War II.
其特征是大面积抽象画
It’s characterized by large, primarily abstract paintings,
全图布局 没有明显的视觉重心
all-over compositions without clear focal points,
浓墨重彩地表现情绪
and sweeping swaths of paint embodying and eliciting emotions.
抽象表现主义艺术家
The group of artists who are considered Abstract Expressionists
包括“拉链”风格的巴尼特·纽曼
includes Barnett Newman with his existential zips,
以女性漫画闻名的威廉·德·库宁
Willem de Kooning, famous for his travestied women,
发明了“浸渍法”的海伦·弗兰肯塔尔
Helen Frankenthaler, who created soak-stains,
不胜枚举
and others.
但最著名、有影响力 也最令人挠头的
But perhaps the most famous, influential, and head-scratching one
也许是杰克逊·波洛克
was Jackson Pollock.
他的作品大多很好辨识
Most of his paintings are immediately recognizable.
他的特点就是
They feature tangled messes of lines of paint
交错的线条在画布上四下发散当然
bouncing around in every direction on the canvas.
这样大片的混乱令人印象深刻
And sure, these fields of chaos are big and impressive,
但它们的伟大之处在哪?
but what’s so great about them?
他难道不是随便滴的颜料吗?
Didn’t he just drip the paint at random?
难道其他人不会吗?
Can’t anyone do that?

Well, the answer to these questions is both yes and no.
也不对波洛克的画法 技术上任何人都能模仿
While Pollock implemented a technique anyone is technically capable of
并不需要专业培训
regardless of artistic training,
但只有他的画成为了艺术
only he could have made his paintings.
这个悖论和他的师承有关
This paradox relates to his work’s roots
即安德烈·马森等人的超现实自动主义
in the Surrealist automatic drawings of André Masson and others.
这些超现实主义者崇尚
These Surrealists supposedly drew directly from the unconscious
用直觉作画来揭示隐藏的内心
to reveal truths hidden within their minds.
有时 他们不从实景取材
Occasionally, instead of picturing something and then drawing it,
让双手自发挥动
they let their hands move automatically
撕碎生活中常见的景象
and would later tease out familiar figures that appeared in the scribbles.
波洛克离开这一画派后
And after Pollock moved away from representation,
还是用类似宗旨作画
he made drip, or action, paintings following a similar premise,
不过他发展出一门绝活
though he developed a signature technique
不再寻找作品中的形象或信息首先
and never looked for images or messages hidden in the works.
他将画布从画架取下
First, he took the canvas off of the easel and laid it on the floor,
铺在地上这动作本身就很颠覆然后
a subversive act in itself.
他控制舞步
Then, in a controlled dance, he stepped all around the canvas,
踏遍画布用搅拌器之类的工具把工业颜料滴到画布上
dripping industrial paint onto it from stirrers and other tools,
改变速度和方向
changing speed and direction
以控制颜料与画布接触的角度
to control how the paint made contact with the surface.
这些动作和超现实主义涂鸦相似
These movements, like the Surrealist scribbles,
人们认为都出自波洛克的潜意识
were supposedly born out of Pollock’s subconscious.
不像超现实主义的画
But unlike the Surrealists,
表现了内心隐藏的想法
whose pictures represented the mind’s hidden contents,
而波洛克则应该是用运动表现精神
Pollock’s supposedly made physical manifestations of his psyche.
他的画就是他思考的化身理论上
His paintings are themselves signatures of his mind.
任何人都能用画表现内心
In theory, anyone could make a painting that is an imprint of their mind.
那波洛克为什么这么出名?
So why is Pollock so special?
别忘了 虽然任何人
Well, it’s important to remember that while anyone could have done what he did,
都可以做到他和纽约画派真的身体力行
he and the rest of the New York School were the ones who actually did it.
他们推翻了几百年的绘画传统
They destroyed conventions of painting that had stood for centuries,
迫使艺术圈彻底反思
forcing the art world to rethink them entirely.
波洛克的作品名闻遐迩的最后原因
But one last reason why Jackson Pollock’s work has stayed prominent
是他创造的包含迷人对比的特殊形象比如
stems from the specific objects he made, which embody fascinating contradictions.
波洛克的作法
For instance, while Pollock’s process
带来了对比强烈的平面
resulted in radically flat painted surfaces,
线条交织的网格仔细看的话 能让人产生无限
the web of painted lines can create the illusion of an infinite layered depth
分层的深度的错觉
when examined up close.
这片交织的混乱似乎拒绝了所有控制
And the chaos of this tangled mess seems to defy all control,
不经精心策划
but it’s actually the product of a deliberate,
却又匠心独具
though not pre-planned, process.
这些特征使波洛克出了名
These characteristics made Pollock into a celebrity,
并在艺术史上
and within art history,
被作为艺术天才
they also elevated him to the mythified status
提到了英雄的高度很不幸
of the genius artist as hero.
他的作品没怎么给富有创意的人铺平舞台
So rather than evening the playing field for all creative minds,
更多加强了艺术圈中长期存在的精英主义
his work unfortunately reinforced a long-standing elitist aspect of art.
精英
Elitist,
革新家
innovative,
随你怎么称呼
whatever you choose to call it,
植根于抽象表现主义的历史
the history embedded in Abstract Expressionism
你家猫再有才 也表现不出来
is one that no cat, however talented, can claim.

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