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亚马逊热带雨林里的“恶魔花园”是如何形成的?

What is a Devil's Garden and How is it formed?

[Music]
[音乐]
Imagine you’re walking through the Amazon rainforest,
想象自己穿梭于亚马逊热带雨林中
the forest which is home to a larger collection of
这里是动植物的王国
living plants and animal species
其生物种类数量
than any other terrestrial ecosystem.
为陆地生态系统之最
About ten percent of all-known species live here,
大约10%的已知物种都生长于此
and about half of the world’s species
其数量是世界所有雨林中
live in all the rainforests combined.
物种总量的一半之多
With this unparalleled diversity,
举世无双的生物多样性
walking through this forest would be a true adventure.
让此次旅行将成为一次真正的冒险
Every step you take would review
每一步前进都将是与
new species of plants and animals that you have never seen before.
素未谋面的生物的奇遇
Every new patch of forest would look totally different than the one before.
雨林中的每一片森林都各不相同
Until all of a sudden, something changes.
直至忽然间 景象变了
The diversity that reigned supreme till this point,
主导许久的生物多样性
has suddenly gone with no clear indication why.
至此不知为何忽然消失的无影无踪
Instead, what you now find is an area of the forest
取而代之的是一片
that is dominated entirely by a single species of tree.
长满单一树种的园林
You just step into the devil’s garden.
你来到的是恶魔花园
But what cause this regularity in such a chaotic environment?
是什么使如此多样复杂的环境变得整齐划一?
It suddenly looks out of place here,
这里看起来格格不入
almost plant, maybe even man-made.
几乎只有植物 甚至可能人为所建
[Music]
[音乐]
Long before, a new scientist stumbled across
很久以前 一位年轻的科学家偶然发现了
these mysterious parts of the rainforest that
这些在亚马逊河流域
you can find all over the Amazon basin.
随处可见的神秘雨林区
Native tribes already knew about them,
当地的部落早已熟知它们
and held their very own explanation for them.
并对其有自己的解释
They believe that these gangs are cultivated,
他们相信有一位林中恶魔
and inhabited by an evil forest spirit,
栽培了这些植物并寄居其中
a demon called Chullachaki.
这个恶魔被称为“查伢查基”
They’re shape shifter that tries to lure people
他通过易形引诱人们
off the main parts and deep into the jungle,
远离主道 深入丛林
until they eventually become lost.
直至他们迷失其中
In his natural state,
据说他生的
which described as an ugly short goblin-like creature,
一副丑陋 矮小的妖怪模样
easily recognizable by his deformed foot.
长着容易辨认的畸形脚
The name Chullachaki literally means
他的名字“查伢查基”有
single or uneven foot,
单足或残足之意
because he is said to have one smaller foot
据说是因为他有一只脚比较小
that is either twisted backwards,
这只脚或前后颠倒
or shaped like a hoof.
或形似蹄子
To trick people and to following him,
为了欺骗和跟踪人类
he can transform himself into whatever person or animal he wishes.
他会变身为任何想要的人或动物
This could be a family member or a friend,
比如你的某个家人或朋友
sometimes an old man or a child,
偶尔还变成老人或小孩
or even potential prey like a deer.
甚至变成猎物 比如鹿
Once his victims have stopped and following him,
一旦受害者停下脚步并跟随他
he will lead them deeper and deeper into the forest,
将会被引入雨林深处
never to be seen again.
一去不返
In recent times, however,
然而 近来
there has been a transformation of the legend of the Chullachaki.
有关“查伢查基”的传说发生了改变
With continuous illegal login,
随着非法登陆不断
and large scale deforestation threatening the Amazon rainforest,
以及森林采伐过度 亚马逊雨林受到威胁
the Chullachaki has become more of a guardian of the jungle,
如今“查伢查基”已成为丛林的保卫者
and the eyes of the locals, a protecter of the forest
土著之眼 以及森林的守护者
that only harms those who wish to destroy it.
他仅攻击那些有意破坏森林的人
But what is actually going on in the devil’s garden?
恶魔花园究竟是怎么回事?
That’s what a team from the Stanford University
这也是斯坦福大学的一个团队
tried to find out in 2005.
在2005年试图研究的问题
And what they found was maybe not as frightening,
他们的发现可能不如期待中可怕
but not less interesting.
但也不失趣味
The species of tree that makes up
构成这片园林的树
these gangs is a very special kind of tree,
是一种特别的树种
the so-called Myrmecophyte,
号称“蚁栖树”
so a plant that shares a mutualistic relationship with ants.
是与蚂蚁互利共生的植物
These trees produce swellings along the stem of each leaf,
这些树的叶茎上长着小突起
in them hollow chambers that give lemon ants room for their nests.
这些突起为柠檬蚁提供生存空间
In turn, the workers defend the tree against herbivores.
反过来 工蚁保护树木免受植食动物
like leaf-cutter ants or other plant-eating insects.
比如啮叶蚁或其它植食虫类的侵害
But that mutualism doesn’t end here.
但它们的共生关系不止于此
In addiction, they also search the surrounding forest floor
除此之外 工蚁还会到附近的林地上寻找
for siblings of competing plants.
与蚁栖树有竞争关系的植物
If they encounter one, countless workers will start taking it,
一旦找到 成千上万只工蚁开始侵入
biting the stem and the leaves of the plant,
啮咬其茎叶
and then jetting a poison called formic acid.
然后喷射有毒的蚁酸
This toxin, common and
这种毒素在蚁类中很常见
many ant species are normally used for communication,
是许多蚁类交流的工具
causes the seedling to die within the next 24 hours,
能够使树苗在一天之内死亡
which makes this the first case
这也是首例
where ants are using the formic acid as herbicide
柠檬蚁利用蚁酸作为除草剂
to poison unwanted plants.
毒死多余植物的情况
By killing all other plants in the vicinity of the nest,
通过毒杀附近的其它植物
the ants promote the growth and establishment of more of their host plants,
柠檬蚁帮助蚁栖树生长和扩张
which gives the ant colony room to expand.
同时也扩大了自己的栖息空间
The plants also benifit,
蚁栖树也同样受益
by increasing the biomass,
不仅增加了生物数量
and by eliminating the competition.
还消灭了竞争者
In this manner, the garden will grow bigger and bigger over time,
照此下去 恶魔花园将不断扩大
and the ant colony with it.
蚁穴也不断增多
This long-lasting mutualism can sometimes produce gardens as big
它们间长久的共生关系有时甚至
as 1300 square meters or 1500 square yards,
养育了面积达1300㎡或1500yd²的园林
with 600 trees or more,
其中生长着600棵树甚至更多
home to more than 15,000 queens and millions of workers.
是15,000只蚁后和几百万只工蚁的家园
Because each colony can have thousands of
每一个蚁穴都有成千只蚁后
queens and reproduce new ones every year,
并且每年都会繁衍后代
they are potentially immortal.
因此它们几乎生生不息
The biggest devil’s gardens and their respective colonies
这个最大的恶魔花园以及其中的各个蚁穴
are therefore believed to be around 800 years old.
因此被认为大约有800年的历史
[Music]
[音乐]

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译制信息
视频概述

地球之肺有什么秘密?

听录译者

Seline

翻译译者

Seline

审核员

审核员ZY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y8Ce5I1nu3c

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