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人类初步探索太空之旅 – 译学馆
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人类初步探索太空之旅

What Inspired Us To Travel To Space

This video was sponsored by The Great Courses Plus.
该视频由The Great Courses Plus赞助播出
It’s a service where you have instantaneous access
这是你可以随时访问的
to lectures by top professors.
一流教授的课程
One of these lectures inspired the creation of this video,
制作这个视频的灵感源于众多课程中的一个
so stay tuned till the end to find out more.
请不要走开 后面有更多信息哦
The greatest inspiration to inventors to creators, to scientists
让发明家 创作者以及科学家灵光一现的灵感
is often based in fiction.
常常来源于小说
Classic works by authors like H.G.Wells and Jules Verne
比如赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯和儒勒·凡尔纳的经典作品
set a generation of minds upon the path of scientific discovery.
使一代人走上科学研究的道路
Those inspired by these works went on to inspire others themselves.
受这些作品启发的人 也一直在启发和鼓舞他人
This cycle has affected mankind in grand ways
这个循环对人类产生了巨大的影响
in humanity’s most outlandish achievements,
在人类取得的大多数超乎寻常的成就中
the Apollo program, Sputnik,
譬如阿波罗工程和人造卫星
and the entire space race are no exception.
还有整个太空竞赛都是
So we’ll start here,
我们从这讲起
not with the Nazis, not with Galileo,
和纳粹无关也和伽利略无关
but with a book –
而是关乎一本书
“From the Earth to the Moon” by Jules Verne.
儒勒·凡尔纳所著的《从地球到月球》
In the story,
故事中
weapon crafters from Baltimore decide to make their largest creation yet
巴尔的摩的兵器工匠决定制作一个史无前例的作品
a cannon that sends them to the moon.
一台能将他们送到月球的加农炮
As crazy as this sounds,
和这个设想一样疯狂的是
the novel contains detailed scientific insight and propositions.
小说中还涵盖具体的科学见解和议案
By the end of the story,
在故事的结尾
the cannon which meansures 900-feet long,
这门长达900英尺的炮
fires three men into space.
带着这三个人上了太空
Never to be heard from again.
之后再也没有他们的消息了
Today it seems downright insane.
至今为止看起来仍然疯狂
How could anybody believe this would be feasible?
怎么会有人相信这是可行的?
Well, the story is from 1865,
这个故事著于1865年
over a hundred years before Apollo 11.
比阿波罗11号早了一百多年
And well before the first airplanes,
也在第一架飞机发明之前
it gave hope to aspiring scientists
这给了胸怀大志的科学家们一个希望
that maybe someday,
就是在未来某一天
man could reach the moon.
人类可以登上月球
One man inspired by this was Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,
齐奥尔科夫斯基就是其中一位科学家
a Russian scientist.
他是一名俄国科学家
In 1903, he published
在1903年 他出版了
exploration of outer space by means of rocket devices,
《利用火箭装置探索外层空间》
using a rocket equation he created earlier.
用他之前创造的火箭方程
So Tsiolkovsky showed the speed and fuel required to get a rocket into space.
齐奥科斯基预估了火箭进入太空对速度与燃料要求
At the same time, his concept for a rocket would split into several parts,
同时 他创造了概念 将火箭分成几个部分
allowing different parts to hold fuel and passengers.
用不同的部分去容纳储存燃料和容纳乘客
At first response was dismissive.
起初别人对他的想法不屑一顾
But he was not deterred.
但他从未放弃
He added on to his ideas in further detail,
他更详细地补充了他的想法
including how much energy was needed to conquer gravity.
包括需要多少能量来克服地心引力
Over time, he gained recognition,
他渐渐地获得了认可
and his ideas were taken far more seriously.
他的想法也逐渐被人重视
But the 1920s, he explained potential systems to protect against reentry
1920年 他解释了一种可能系统 在重返大气层时如何自我保护
and a composition of rocket fuel.
还有火箭燃料的组成
However, he himself saw his ideas as ahead of its time,
不过他的想法领先于时代
and never took his concepts into practice
以至于他的理论从未得到实践的机会
instead it was Robert H Goddard who took things further, and an American,
取而代之的是美国的是科学家罗伯特·戈达德
He was fascinated by the H.G.Wells’ story,
他被赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯的小说深深吸引
“The War of the Worlds”.
尤其是《星际战争》
He only grew more entranced by space
他对太空越来越着迷
and studied physics throughout college,
在大学时学习物理的同时
writing papers detailing his ideas and theories.
写论文详细阐述他的想法和理论
He soon fell upon his most important contribution to space travel –
他很快就对太空旅行做出了重大贡献
liquid-fueled rockets.
液体燃料火箭
Walsall Kowski described rockets in a similar fashion,
与齐奥尔科夫斯基描述火箭理论相似
Goddard took the science and created the first liquid-fueled rocket In 1926s
1926年 戈达德成功地利用科学造出了第一枚液体燃料火箭
he continued his work
他专研于这项工作
improving the rockets over decades.
几十年来不断地改进火箭
This would be the man and the ideas that would be the most influential to landing a man on the moon.
这是对人类的登月计划最有影响力的一步
Over in Germany,
在德国
Hermann Oberth as student Verner Von Braun,
弗纳·冯·布劳恩 和他的学生赫尔曼·奥伯特
were testing similar ideas to Goddard.
进行了与戈达德想法相似的实验
Based on his experiments,
以他的实验作为基础
they two saw great potential in liquid-fueled rockets,
他们发现液体燃料火箭有着巨大潜力
but soon their work became transformed into weapons of war.
但不久后该成果变成了战争武器
In the 1930s, Germany had a culture of rocket enthusiasts
在1930年 德国掀起了一阵火箭热潮
trying to experiment with liquid fuel.
人们尝试用液体燃料做实验
Obert and Von Braun were among the prominent VFR group
奥伯特和冯·布劳恩是VFR组织的重要成员
who made their own rockets and launch them periodically.
他们自己制造火箭并按周期发射
As Hitler’s regime rose however,
随着希特勒政权的崛起
the potential for government funding was impossible if it was not to help the Nazi cause.
如果不支持纳粹党 当局政府就不会资助
This would cause many members such as Von Braun
导致了许多成员 例如冯·布劳恩
to join their ranks to continue receiving funding.
为了获得资助被迫加入纳粹
As it turns out,
事实证明
these enthusiasts would soon become far more important to the Nazis,
这些热衷于研究火箭的人对纳粹党变得非常重要
using concepts they had learned including those from Goddard,
运用包括戈达德和冯·布劳恩的理论
Von Braun created the  V-2 rocket.
冯·布劳恩创造出了V-2型火箭
While his interest was still in space,
虽然他仍然太空感兴趣
the rockets were obviously not used for that
但是火箭显然并没有用于探索太空
and resulted in the deaths of thousands.
反而导致成千上万人死亡
As the war came to a close,
随着战争迈向尾声
the Soviets and the Americans had great interest in the German rocket program.
苏联和美国对德国的火箭计划饶有兴趣
With this, they scrambled to recruit leading scientists
所以他们争先恐后的招募顶尖科学家
with Von Braun going to the Americans.
冯·布劳恩加入了美国阵营
He would help them develop concepts and technologies
他帮助了美国完善概念和技术
over the following years but without the drive of war funding,
然而这些年中没有战争资金的驱动
this didn’t allow many concept to become practical.
很多理论无法得到实施
This included concepts like traveling to Mars,
就像火星遨游
artificial gravity stations,
人造重力站
and a space station capable of orbit to ground missiles.
以及一个能够绕地发射导弹的空间站
In the name of national security,
以国家安全为由
the Soviets were not completely in the dark on rockets either though.
苏联人对火箭也不是完全一无所知
One of the most knowledgeable was Sergei Korolev,
学识渊博的谢尔盖·科罗廖夫是其中之一
younger than the others on this list,
在科研名单里年纪最轻
his inspirations lied in the growing culture of airplanes and gliders.
不断发展的飞机和滑翔机文化让他的灵感油然而生
As he studied these,
通过研究和学习
he soon imagined the capabilities of a rocket-powered airplane.
他很快就想到了火箭动力飞机的潜在动力
He studied further and developed flight stabilisation methods
他进一步研究和发展飞行稳定的方法
before being sent to the Gulag.
赶在被送去古拉格集中营之前
Likely being framed by a potentially jealous co-worker.
大概是被嫉妒他的同事暗中陷害
He was later sent to a labor camp
然后他被送到劳动营
for other scientists to work on the Soviet projects.
与其他科学家研讨苏联的火箭项目
Here he showed his potential in rocketry,
他展示了自己在火箭方面的潜力
leading to his eventual release.
最终获释
So again with World War Ⅱ ending,
所以在二战结束的同时
the Soviets found V-2 rocket plans.
苏联创办V-2火箭计划
In the spawned a new area of discovery improving the concepts,
新领域概念更上一层楼
Korolev who joined the Communists to request more funding
为了筹集资金科罗廖夫基金加入共产党
created the world’s first ICBM
创造出了前所未闻的ICBM
or intercontinental ballistic missile.
或称洲际弹道导弹
This was able to carry a nuke over 4,000 miles.
它能携带核弹超过4000多英里
As his work was implemented for war by the Soviets,
尽管他的成果被苏联用于战争
he still found himself geared towards space travel.
他仍然觉得太空旅行更有趣
He convinced Stalin to allow him to attach a small satellite
他说服斯大林允许他安装一颗小型卫星
to one of the R-7 rockets used for ICBM tests
连接到一枚R-7火箭洲际弹道导弹的测试中
which would be Sputnik Ⅰ,
这就是Sputnik Ⅰ(苏联的第一颗人造卫星)
the catalyst for the start of the space race.
太空竞赛开始的催化剂
It’s here where we see the most substantial advancements in space travel,
这是我们看到太空旅行最显著进步
culminating in the greatest competition the world has ever seen.
在世界上最伟大的比赛中达到巅峰
The origins of this race wasn’t simply born from immediate political rivalries,
这次竞赛的根本不只是政治对抗
but from decades of inspiration,
还有几十年的科学精神
born from the works of Verne, the test of Ghanard.
凡尔纳的作品和加纳的实践都功不可没
Scientists with not simply alliances,
科学家们不只是简单的合作
but also caught up in the greater events of their time.
而且还掀起了一个时代惊涛骇浪
This video was inspired by a lecture
本视频的灵感源于众多课程之一
which was featured in the video service.
课程来自下面这个视频平台
“The Great Courses Plus”,
那就是The Great Courses Plus
“1969 Walking On the Moon”
视频为“1969年月球漫步”
taught by Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius.
由Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius教授讲授
Here he detailed the history and journey
他用历史与经历详述了
of getting to the moon.
登月历程
You can access this in many numerous courses through The Great Courses Plus.
登录The Great Courses Plus可以找到
It’s a subscription on-demand video learning service
这是订阅点播视频学习的服务平台
with over seven thousand video lectures
拥有七千多节视频课程
taught by professors in basically every field.
由各领域的教授讲解
Topics like science, history, math
主题涵盖科学 历史 数学
and even really specific and on topics that continue to always be updated,
具体内容和主题的课程也会不断更新
like photography.
比如摄影课程
Courses are sometimes even hosted by National Geographic and the Smithsonian.
课程有时由《 National Geographic 》和《Smithsonian》学会主办
It removes the pressure of grades
无需承受学分压力
while also giving you college grade lectures,
也能享受到大学水准的课程
just watch and listen.
只需要看和听即可
So if you want to learn more about the space race,
如果想了解更多太空竞赛的内容
click on this link
点击链接
to get one month of unlimited access
即可获得一个月无限制访问
to courses and videos.
课程和视频的权利
Absolutely free.
完全免费
Just visit thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge,
访问网址:thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge
the link is provided in the description below.
链接将在下方描述区提供
This is Kody of Knowledge Hub.
我是知识集线器的Kody

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视频概述

该视频简要介绍了激起人类探索太空灵感来源——小说。初始时,“登月”这一想法多么荒谬不堪。随着时间的发展,期间大大小小曲折,科学家们不懈努力与奋斗,掀起一阵火箭热潮……

听录译者

ABC

翻译译者

少歌

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUO2TynAX8g

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