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如果你只吃肉会怎么样? – 译学馆
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如果你只吃肉会怎么样?

What If You Only Ate Meat?

本集视频由23andMe赞助播出
This episode is supported by 23andMe.
250万年前 我们开始吃肉
2.5 million years ago we first began to eatmeat.
在那之前 我们的祖先
Prior to that, our ancestors ate a vegan diet
食用浆果和花朵这样的素食
of berries and flowers.
当早期人类开始食用更多的种子和坚果后
And only when early hominins began to eat more seeds and nuts,
会使得脂肪的摄入增多 纤维减少
therefore taking in higher levels of fat
我们的身体才开始逐渐适应肉类食物
and less fiber, did our bodies begin to adapt to handle meat.
但是 如果你现在只吃肉会怎么样?
But what would happen now if you ONLY ate meat?
离开了像是豆类、西兰花这样的富含膳食纤维的食物
Without fiber rich foods like lentils, beans and broccoli,
你很可能会受到便秘的困扰 并感到不适
you are gonna feel constipated and uncomfortable.
更不用说 对机体来说最简单的能量来源
Not to mention, the simplest way for your body to make energy
是将碳水化合物转化为葡萄糖
is to convert carbohydrates into glucose.
在没有碳水化合物的情况下 你的身体就
In the absence of carbs your body will
不得不燃烧脂肪 分解掉重要的蛋白质
have to burn fat and break down important proteins.
将蛋白质合成葡萄糖的过程叫做糖质异生
Creating glucose from protein is known as gluconeogenesis,
主要发生在肝脏中
and it occurs in the liver,
同时产生一种会被转化为尿素的含氮废物
creating a nitrogen waste that is convertedinto urea.
食用过量的肉会导致蛋白质中毒
Too much can lead to protein poisoning –
症状包括恶心 腹泻
which includes some lovely symptoms like nausea, diarrhea
严重时甚至可能致死
and, Oh, potentially death.
有记录表明 如果你只食用像兔肉这样
It ’ s even been documented if you only ate lean meat like rabbit,
几乎不含任何脂肪的瘦肉
which has hardly any
哪怕你一直吃 一直吃
fat, you could eat and eat and
还是会日渐消瘦
eat and still end up wasting away.
另外一个潜在的致死风险在于缺乏维生素C
Another potential killer could be the lack of Vitamin C.
人类是少数不能
Humans are one of the few animals
自身合成该维生素的动物之一
that are not able to synthesize the Vitaminon their own.
离开了从水果和蔬菜中获取维生素C的渠道
Without easy access to Vitamin C
你的身体将不能有效的
from fruits and veggies your body will be unable to effectively
合成胶原蛋白 它是一种存在于肌腱、韧带和皮肤中的结构蛋白
create collagen, a structural protein found in your tendons, ligaments and skin.
这将导致你
This will put you
极有可能患上坏血病 并使你伤口愈合能力下降 牙龈糜烂
at high risk of scurvy and cause you to have poor wound healing, rotting
以及性格发生变化
gums and personality changes.
不予治疗的话 你将死于感染或出血
If not treated you would die from infectionor bleeding.
但是 吃生肉也许可以避免这一结果
But eating raw meat could be the way aroundthis.
烹饪过程会导致肉类中绝大部分的维生素C流失
The cooking of meat degrades most of the Vitamin C,
然而 生的、厚厚的、有嚼劲的富含胶原蛋白的鲸鱼皮
but raw, thick, chewy collagen rich skin
和鲸脂每100克中含有36毫克的维生素C
and blubber of whales can take in 36mg of Vitamin C per 100g serving.
远远超出了避免坏血病的10毫克下限值
Way more than the 10mg needed to fight offscurvy.
这就带来了一个有趣的事实:
This brings us to an interesting case:
对于在低温、荒凉环境下生存的因纽特人
shaped by low temperatures and a stark environment,
传统饮食结构由捕猎和捕鱼所得猎物构成
a traditional Inuit diet consisted of what was hunted and fished
几乎不含任何
with little, if any,
植物性食物、奶制品或是碳水化合物
plant food, dairy products, or carbohydrates.
尽管如此 他们的心脏病死亡率仅仅是美国、加拿大人的一半
Despite this, cardiac death rates were half that of other Americans and Canadians.
在饮食富含脂肪又不摄入任何水果蔬菜的情况下 如何才能保持健康呢?
How can you be healthy on a fatty diet without any fruits and vegetables?
你可以食用动物内脏像是肝脏 从中获取足量的
You can snack on organ meat like liver to get your recommended Vitamin A,
对你的眼睛和骨头很重要的
which is vital for
维生素A 以及同样对你的骨头有好处的维生素D
eyes and bones and Vitamin D (for your bonestoo).
富含omega-3脂肪酸的多脂鱼
And Oily fish rich in omega-3 fatty
对心血管系统有益
acids will benefit your heart and vascularsystem.
因纽特人的身体已经能适应糖异生
Inuit bodies have adapted to manage gluconeogenesis
他们有着更大的肝脏 尿液也会更多
by having larger livers and increased volumes
以代谢多余的尿素
of urine to get rid of the extra urea.
最近的一项遗传学研究研究了
A recent genetic study investigated the genome
格陵兰岛因纽特人的基因组 发现了
of Greenland Inuit and found a selection for
针对胆固醇和甘油三酯有保护作用的基因变异
variants that create a protective effect againstcholesterol and triglycerides.
所以 只吃肉的情况下
So, it is possible to thrive
还是有可能茁壮成长的 但是需要记住的是
on only meat but it ’ s important to remember that Northern
北方人依赖动物性食物是迫于生存环境的需要
communities have relied on animal food outof circumstance and necessity.
他们的高脂饮食是为了
Their high fat diet was intended to keep weight
在长时间捕猎以及食物来源不稳定时保持体重
on for days of hunting, and when food was
而不是像吃现代低碳水化合物饮食是为了减肥
insecure, not lose weight like modern lowcarb diets.
除非你计划食用生的鲸鱼脂肪
Unless you are planning on eating raw whale blubber,
动物内脏 并且有着像因纽特人般的基因
organ meat, and have genetics on
还是乖乖的选择多样化的食物 保证膳食均衡吧
your side consider sticking to a balanced diet of all the major food groups.
如果你想对23AndMe表示谢意
If you want to send a huge thank you to 23AndMe
并赞助本视频
for sponsoring this video,
就去23AndMe.com订购属于你的个性化套装吧
go to 23AndMe.com to get your personalized kit.
通过他们的基因服务真正了解你自己的DNA
And use their genetic service to literally learn about your own DNA.
我们两个都已经订购了 并从中了解到很多关于我们的祖先的信息
We’ve both taken it and learned so much about our ancestry.
我发现我有5%的中国血统
I actually found out that I was 5% Chinese,
我从来不知道
which I had no idea.
我的家人也都不知道
No one in my family knew that.
这个真的很有意思
So that was really interesting.
你还可以了解到像是关于你的睡眠质量
You also find out things about… like your sleep quality,
你的味觉 以及你的饮食如何影响你的身体
your taste and how diet impacts your body.
对于节日季来说这是一个很棒的礼物
This is an amazing gift for the holiday season.
因为你可以把它送给你的朋友和家人
Cuz you can give it to your friends and family and
并借此机会更加了解他们
literally learn more about them.
我们两个都送了这个给我们的姐姐作为生日礼物
We both give it to our sisters for their birthday
来看看她们到底有多少尼安德特血统
to try and figure out how much Neanderthal they had in them.
23AndMe 现在正有一个假期特惠 截止日期是12月26日
23AndMe actually has a holiday offering until December 26th right now.
所以你还在等什么呢?快去23AndMe.com订购你的套装吧
So make sure you go to 23AndMe.com and order your kit today.
感谢您的观看 一定要订阅哦
Thanks for watching, make sure you subscribe.
下周四见
We’ll see you next Thursday for a new video.

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视频概述

营养学家告诉我们要均衡膳食,多吃蔬菜和水果,可你有没有想过,如果只吃肉我们能不能存活?我们的身体会发生什么变化?为什么生活在高纬度严寒环境中的因纽特人可以适应不含植物性食物的饮食?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Yolanda

审核员

译学馆审核团D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNAgri-C8Y0

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