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在马里亚纳海沟引爆一枚核弹? – 译学馆
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在马里亚纳海沟引爆一枚核弹?

What If You Detonated a Nuclear Bomb In The Marianas Trench? (Science not Fantasy)

如果我们把人类最强大的核武器
What would happen if we detonated humanity’s
放在海洋最深处引爆会发生什么?
most powerful nuclear weapon at the deepest point of the ocean?
毫无疑问 几百米高的海啸将摧毁沿海城市
For sure, tsunamis hundreds of meters high would destroy coastal cities,
地震将把各国夷为平地 火山爆发会使我们进入核冬天
earthquakes would level countries, new volcanoes would bring us nuclear winter.
地球甚至可能会被毁灭
Maybe even Earth could be ripped apart?
或偏离运行轨道 唔
Or thrown out of orbit? Well,
差不多 目前
almost. Currently,
人们已知的地表最深处在马里亚纳海沟底
Earth’s deepest known point is inside the Mariana Trench.
马里亚纳海沟是一个非常深的山谷
The Mariana Trench is a very deep valley
位于两个板块边缘
right at the edge of two tectonic plates
看上去就像一座颠倒的山
that looks like an upside-down mountain.
它深达11km
It reaches a depth of about 11 kilometers,
几乎比泰坦尼克号的幽暗坟墓深三倍
almost three times deeper thanthe dark grave of the Titanic.
它是地球上仅剩的等着人类探索的地点之一
It’s one of the last places on Earth for humans to explore.
这里一片漆黑 压强达到1000标准大气压
Pitch black and under a thousand atmospheres of pressure,
多亏了人们的忽视 它保留了相对原始的环境
it’s a relatively pristine environment thanks to the absence of humans.
这是个进行核实验的好地方
A great place for our nuclear test.
我们使用人类引爆的最强大的核武器
We’ll use the most powerful nuclear bomb humans have ever exploded,
RDS-220氢弹或者沙皇炸弹
the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb or Tsar Bomba.
它的爆炸是如此剧烈
Its explosion was so massive
以至于它的冲击波能绕地球三次
that its shockwave traveled around the Earth three times,
它的蘑菇云能延伸到56km的高空
and its mushroom cloud stretched 56 kilometers into the sky.
它的冲击波强大到足以摧毁
Its shockwave was strong enough to destroy everything
一千平方公里内的一切
in a thousand square kilometers,
坠落的滚烫火球足以燃烧碎石
its fireball hot enough to burn the rubble.
这样的炸弹一次性释放如此巨大的能量
Bombs like this release such an enormous amount of energy at once,
可以使一整片湖水沸腾
that they could boil away an entire lake.
如果我们在马里亚纳海沟
And if we set off a nuclear bomb
在马里亚纳海沟里 这是很明显的事情
in the Mariana Trench, that’s exactly what happens.
让我们扣动扳机
Let’s pull the trigger.
在初始的几微秒内
In the first few microseconds,
原子核燃料进行它的链式反应
the nuclear fuel undergoes its chain reaction
然后爆炸 释放出相当于五千万吨TNT的能量
and explodes with the power of 50 megatons of TNT.
一道炫目的光芒史无前例地照亮
A blinding flash of light illuminates the darkness
这是历史上的第一次
of the trench for the first time in history.
爆炸的高温创造出一个充斥着水蒸气
The heat of the explosion produces a cavity,
燃烧的水汽泡
a flaming bubble of water vapor,
放射性核 以及非常不幸的鱼的残骸
radioactive nuclei, and the remains of very unlucky fish.
气泡灼烧海水使其蒸发同时迅速膨胀
The bubble grows quickly as it vaporizes the water around it.
气泡的压力是巨大无比的
The pressure of the bubble is immense,
它势不可挡地向外扩张
plowing outwards as if there’s nothing in the way.
发出能被地球上地震观测站和鲸鱼
Sending off a shockwave that will be felt
感测到的冲击波
by seismic stations and whales around the world.
然后 几乎就在它出现的时候 它停止了
And then, almost as fast as it emerges, it stops.
在地球表面
On the surface of the Earth,
在它被释放的这一秒中 燃烧气泡会增长到10km
this fireball bubble would grow to ten kilometers the second after it’s detonated,
大气层会通过与其微弱地抵抗来压缩它
as the atmosphere barely puts up a fight to hold it back.
然而马里亚纳海沟底部的压力是巨大的
But the pressure at the bottom of the Mariana Trench is enormous.
头顶11km深的水
With 11 kilometres of water overhead,
身处马里亚纳海沟就像受到来自
being in the Mariana Trench is like being crushed
各个方向的液压机的碾压
by a hydraulic press from every direction. Here,
现在 爆炸过去了一秒
a second after the detonation, our
气泡直径大约一千米 奇怪的是
bubble is about a kilometer across, when oddly enough,
它开始缩小
it starts to shrink.
气泡不停膨胀 膨胀时失去压力
The bubble overextends itself, losing pressure as it expands,
直到水把它倒过来 重新压缩
until the water turns it back, recompressing it.
这场角力
The tug of war
在炽热的死亡气泡和水之间来回几次
between the fiery death bubble and water goes back and forth a few times,
气泡收缩又膨胀 直到最后失去力量
the bubble shrinking and growing, until eventually the bubble loses for good.
气泡四周的压力实在太大了
The pressure around it is too great,
然后激流开始把气泡切碎
and turbulent water begins to chop it up.
这一切变得犹如水下相当于一朵蘑菇云
It becomes something like the underwater equivalent of a mushroom cloud
它会分解为更小的 热的 放射性的气泡并上浮
as it disintegrates into many smaller, hot and radioactive bubbles drifting upwards.
当这具有强破坏力的爆炸波到达水面时
And as our mighty destructive blast rises to the surface,
它已基本没有影响了
it does basically nothing.
仅能掀起一些浪花
Just a small wave,
还有太平洋上冒着气泡的放射性暖水
and a bubbling plume of radioactive warm water in the Pacific.
不会有海啸会冲击日本或者加利福尼亚州
No tsunami will wash away Japan or California,
不过在该区域的船只和鲸鱼可能不会好过
although boats and whales in the area might have a bad time.
放射性沉降物将被稀释
The radioactive fallout will be diluted
几天后进入太平洋
into the Pacific after a few days,
相当数量的
although a fair amount
放射性水和盐会进入大气层
of radioactive water and salt makes it to the atmosphere
大气收集它们 然后经降雨排出
where it collects and then rains down again.
虽然风会直接将污染物吹向菲律宾
Even if the wind blows the fallout directly towards the Philippines,
但最糟糕的事也只会发生在海域
the worst of it probably happens over the oceans.
但显然 我们知道真的危险
But clearly, the real danger comes
来自爆炸引发的地震和火山喷发 对吧?
from our explosion-triggering earthquakes and volcanoes, right?
但即使我们在海沟里引爆的炸弹正好位于
Even if we detonated the bomb right in the trench
在板块接触的位置 也可能不会引起这些灾难
at the exact point where tectonic plates touch, probably not.
爆炸可能会使一部分海底蒸发
The explosion would vaporize a part of the seafloor,
使许多沙子转化为玻璃
and turn a lot of sand into glass,
但大部分能量会作用于水 不会有地震波
but most of the energy goes into the water, not seismic waves.
而且地震在地壳板块边界是非常常见的
Earthquakes are already quite common at tectonic plate boundaries.
而地震能与炸弹爆炸产生的能量差不多
And earthquakes with as much seismic energy as our bomb
每年都会发生数次 但从没引发过大灾难
happen a few times a year without triggering any sort of apocalypse.
那它可能会影响地球的轨道?
But maybe it will affect the Earth’s orbit.
可既然地球质量没有大规模的增加或减少
Since no mass is taken away or added to the Earth,
那地球轨道也是不受影响的
our orbit is completely unaffected. Also,
曾有超过一千次原子核实验进行于
there have been well over a thousand nuclear tests
过去的70年里
in the last 70 years
地球也没有改变轨道
and that didn’t change our orbit,
那么为什么这次会不同呢
so why would this time be different?
就算是最强大的人力 与自然相比也是可笑的
The strongest forces humanity can unleash are laughable compared to the forces of nature.
这星球是如此的大 根本不介意
The planet is too big. It doesn’t care. So,
我们会发生什么?
what happens to us
如果我们在足够深的海里引爆核武器?
if we detonate a nuclear weapon really deep in the ocean?
基本无事发生
Pretty much nothing.
你知道视频里的每只小鸟都有主人吗?
Did you know that every bird in our videos has an owner?
超过一千人拥有了它们自己的小鸟
More than 1,000 people have got their own bird.
它帮我们解释事情 出现在背景里
It helps us explain things, clowns around in the background,
或者可怕而离奇的死去
or dies a horrible and avoidable death.
如果你想要专属小鸟
If you want your own bird too and
想让它出现在我们的视频里
you want it to appear in one of our videos,
你能在patreon.com/kurzgesagt得到它
you can get it at patreon.com/kurzgesagt.
Patreon 是我们的主要经济来源
Patreon is one of the main ways we sustain ourselves.
所以在获得非常好的宠物的同时
So on top of getting a super nice avatar,
你还能帮助我们作出更多更好的视频
you also help us make more and better videos.
(嘎嘎)
[Quacking]
(结尾音乐)
[Outro music]

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视频概述

在世界最深的海沟引爆核弹会发生什么呢?海啸?火山爆发?核污染?本视频会告诉你答案。

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翻译译者

[HUSAN]

审核员

审核员_AK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tbxDgcv74c

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