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黑洞相撞会怎样 – 译学馆
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黑洞相撞会怎样

What If Two Black Holes Collided?

Black holes are the gravitational monsters of the Universe.
黑洞是宇宙中拥有强引力的怪兽
They are so powerful that nothing,
它们强大到 没有任何东西
not even the light, can escape their grasp.
即使光 也不能逃脱它们的魔爪
One black hole is bad enough, but…
一个黑洞已经够糟的了 但是
if you took two black holes and smashed them into each other,
如果有两个相互碰撞的黑洞
they’d be capable of changing the shape of space itself.
它们就有能力改变自身周围空间的形状
how epic would that explosion be?
这种爆炸会有多么壮观?
and could it somehow reach earth?
它会以某种方式到达地球吗?
this is What If
这是《自然无常》
and here is what would happen if two black holes collided
这里讲述的是 两个黑洞相撞会发生的情况
Of course, we have no means
当然了 我们目前还没有办法
to capture or control black holes yet.
捕获或控制黑洞
So, imagine you’re observing one
想象一下 你正在地球上
from a giant telescope here on Earth.
用一个巨大的望远镜观察黑洞
And suddenly, you notice something strange.
突然 你发现了一些异样
Is that another black hole?
那是另一个黑洞吗?
It sure looks like it.
看起来的确像是
And it also looks like these two are about to collide.
而且看来这两个黑洞即将撞在一起
It turns out that even gravitational giants like black holes
事实证明 即使黑洞这样的引力怪物
occasionally run into each other in the seemingly vast Universe.
偶尔也会在看似浩瀚的宇宙中相撞
Are you about to see a nuclear bomb-like explosion
你会看到一场类似核爆一样的
of supersize proportions?
超大规模的爆炸吗?
The reality might be a little disappointing.
事实可能有点儿令人失望
But you still wouldn’t want that galactic bomb
但你还是不希望那颗银河系级别的炸弹
to detonate anywhere near your planet.
在你的星球附近爆炸
Bear with me here, because to understand how black holes collide,
请耐心听我说 因为要搞清楚黑洞如何相撞
you need to arm yourself with a bit of theory.
你需要储备一些理论知识
Black holes come in all shapes and sizes.
黑洞有各种形状和大小
And, of course, the magnitude of the collision would depend on
当然 碰撞的强度将取决于
which black holes are slammed together.
哪种黑洞撞在一起
Stellar-mass black holes are the most common type.
恒星重量的黑洞是最普遍的
They can have up to 20 solar masses,
它们的质量相当于太阳质量的20多倍
but could fit in a ball much smaller in diameter than our Sun.
但却可以装进一个比太阳直径小很多的球里
Now, let’s go back to you observing this gravitational show firsthand.
现在 我们回到你观察黑洞碰撞秀的地方
First, you’d see the two black holes getting a little closer,
首先 你会看到两个黑洞越来越近
until they started to orbit each other.
直到它们开始绕着对方旋转
They would begin pulling matter and gas
它们开始把物质和气体
into a vortex between them.
拉进它们之间的漩涡
Get comfortable, because it could take
别紧张 因为它们中心的融合
billions of years for their centers to merge.
将花费数十亿年的时间
But as the black holes merged into one,
但是 当两个黑洞合二为一时
they’d wobble a little,
它们会摇摆不定
and settle down into a new, bigger black hole.
最终形成一个全新的 更大的黑洞
I hope you’re not disappointed with such an explosion-free outcome.
我希望你对没有爆炸这一结果不要失望
But wait, there is something I haven’t mentioned yet.
但是等等 我还有件事儿没说
The excess energy from the collision
这次碰撞产生的过剩能量
would be expelled back into the Universe as gravitational waves.
会以引力波的方式释放到宇宙中
As I mentioned before, colliding black holes
正如我之前提到的 黑洞碰撞
can change the shape of the space around them.
可以改变它们周围空间的形状
They do it by rippling this space with gravitational waves.
通过释放引力波 它们能使空间泛起波纹
Albert Einstein predicted gravitational waves over a hundred years ago.
一百多年前 爱因斯坦就预测到了引力波
But scientists didn’t observe them until 2015,
但科学家们直到2015年才观测到
when the advanced LIGO gravitational-wave observatory
当时先进的LIGO引力波天文台
finally detected gravitational waves after 8 years of operation.
经过八年的观测 终于探测到了引力波
The cool thing about these waves
这些引力波最酷的地方是
is that they affect the distance between the Sun and the Earth.
它们只需要氢原子直径般幅度的改变
They only change it by the diameter of a hydrogen atom.
就能影响太阳和地球之间的距离
You’d need a whole lot of colliding black holes to really see a difference.
你需要大量的黑洞碰撞才能看到距离改变
but, what about supermassive black holes?
但要是超大质量的黑洞呢?
would their collision be more explosive?
它们的碰撞会不会更具爆炸性?
These black holes have a mass of
这些黑洞的质量
at least hundreds of thousands of times the mass of our Sun.
至少是太阳质量的几十万倍
But the thing is, they might never even collide at all.
但问题在于 它们可能永远不会相撞
Two supermassive giants would get close to each other
两个超大质量的庞然大物会彼此靠近
until they reached a gravitational balance,
直至达到引力的平衡
and froze in their respective orbits.
并固定在各自的轨道上
But add another supermassive black hole to the equation,
但在平衡态中再加入另一个超大质量黑洞
and the three of them could
那么这三个黑洞就可能
tip over the gravitational scale, and, finally, collide.
打破平衡 最终碰撞
Not in a massive cosmic explosion,
不会造成大规模的宇宙爆炸
but a silent merger, sending powerful gravitational waves
而是悄无声息的合并
throughout the Universe.
向整个宇宙发送强大的引力波
you know, despite the fact that black holes
要知道 尽管黑洞
are an unstoppable, insatiable force
事实上是一种无法阻止的 贪婪的力量
from which nothing can escape,
没有什么可以从它那里逃脱
we have nothing to fear from their collision.
但我们并不需要畏惧它们的碰撞
Okay, maybe if that collision happened
如果在我们太阳系附近的
somewhere in the neighborhood of our Solar System.
某个地方可能发生碰撞
Then the merging black holes would rip
然后融合中的黑洞
all the planets in their vicinity to shreds,
会把它附近所有的星球撕成碎片
including Earth.
包括地球
If you really want to look at a black hole,
如果你真的想观察一个黑洞
even a single black hole,
哪怕是单个的黑洞
and not turn into a human-flavored spaghetti noodle,
而又不想变成人肉意大利面
you need make sure you stay a safe distance away.
你要确保自己处在一个安全的距离
But that’s a story for another WHAT IF.
但这就是另一期《自然无常》的故事了

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