未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

如果有 1 万亿棵树会怎样?

What if there were 1 trillion more trees? - Jean-François Bastin

“只有当你挖了个坑 种了棵树 浇了水 让它存活 才算做了件事”——旺加里·马塔伊
Standing at almost 84 meters tall,
这棵树高达84米
this is the largest known living tree on the planet,
是地球上已知的现存最大的树
nicknamed General Sherman.
绰号“谢尔曼将军”
This giant sequoia has sequestered roughly 1,400 tons of atmospheric carbon
这棵巨型红杉在地球上大约2500年的时间里
over its estimated 2,500 years on earth.
吸收了大约1400吨的大气碳
Very few trees can compete with this carbon impact,
很少有树木能与这样的碳影响一较高下
but today, humanity produces more than 1,400 tons of carbon every minute.
但如今 人类每分钟产生的碳超过1400吨
To combat climate change,
为了应对气候变化
we need to steeply reduce fossil fuel emissions,
我们需要大幅减少化石燃料的排放
and draw down excess CO2
减少过量的二氧化碳
to restore our atmosphere’s balance of greenhouse gases.
以恢复大气中温室气体的平衡
But what can trees do to help in this fight?
但树木能在这场斗争中做些什么呢?
And how do they sequester carbon in the first place?
它们最初是如何进行碳封存的?
Like all plants, trees consume atmospheric carbon
像所有植物一样 树木消耗大气中的碳
through a chemical reaction called photosynthesis.
是通过一种叫做光合作用的化学反应
This process uses energy from sunlight
这个过程利用来自阳光的能量
to convert water and carbon dioxide
将水和二氧化碳转化为
into oxygen and energy-storing carbohydrates.
氧气和储存能量的碳水化合物
Plants then consume these carbohydrates
然后植物在一个叫做呼吸作用的反向过程中
in a reverse process called respiration,
消耗这些碳水化合物
converting them to energy
将它们转化为能量
and releasing carbon back into the atmosphere.
并将碳释放回大气中
In trees, however, a large portion of that carbon isn’t released,
然而 树木中大部分碳并没有被释放出来
and instead, is stored as newly formed wood tissue.
而是以新形成的木质组织的形式储存起来
During their lifetimes, trees act as carbon vaults,
树木在一生中扮演着碳库的角色
and they continue to draw down carbon for as long as they grow.
只要它们生长 就会持续吸收碳
However, when a tree dies and decays,
然而 当一棵树死亡和腐烂时
some of its carbon will be released back into the air.
它储存的一些碳会被释放到空气中
A significant amount of CO2 is stored in the soil,
大量的二氧化碳储存在土壤中
where it can remain for thousands of years.
可以在里面保存数千年
But eventually, that carbon also seeps back into the atmosphere.
但最终这些碳也会渗回到大气中
So if trees are going to help fight a long-term problem
因此 如果树木要帮助应对长期问题
like climate change,
如气候变化等
they need to survive
它们需要生存
to sequester their carbon for the longest period possible,
以尽可能长时间地封存碳
while also reproducing quickly.
同时也要快速繁殖
Is there one type of tree we could plant that meets these criteria?
我们能否种植一种满足这些条件的树?
Some fast growing, long-lived, super sequestering species
一些生长快 寿命长 碳封存能力超强
we could scatter worldwide?
可以分散种到世界各地的树种?
Not that we know of.
据我们所知没有
But even if such a tree existed,
但即使这样的树存在
it wouldn’t be a good long-term solution.
这也不是一个好的长期解决方案
Forests are complex networks of living organisms,
森林是由活有机体组成的复杂网络
and there’s no one species that can thrive in every ecosystem.
没有一个物种可以在所有生态系统中茁壮成长
The most sustainable trees to plant are always native ones;
最能持续种植的树木总是本土树木
species that already play a role in their local environment.
那些已经在当地环境中发挥作用的树木品种
Preliminary research shows that
初步研究表明
ecosystems with a naturally occurring diversity of trees
拥有自然发生的树木多样性的生态系统
have less competition for resources
对资源的竞争更少
and better resist climate change.
也能更好地抵御气候变化
This means we can’t just plant trees to draw down carbon;
这意味着我们不能仅仅为了减少碳而植树
we need to restore depleted ecosystems.
我们需要恢复枯竭的生态系统
There are numerous regions that have been clear cut
有许多地区已经被明确划分或开发
or developed that are ripe for restoring.
条件成熟 能够恢复
In 2019, a study led by Zurich’s Crowtherlab
2019年 由苏黎世克劳瑟实验室负责的一项研究
analyzed satellite imagery of the world’s existing tree cover.
分析了全球现有树木覆盖的卫星图像
By combining it with climate and soil data
通过结合图像和气候土壤数据
and excluding areas necessary for human use,
并排除必要的人类使用区域
they determined Earth could support
他们确定了地球可以支持
nearly one billion hectares of additional forest.
额外近10亿公顷的森林范围
That’s roughly 1.2 trillion trees.
大约是1.2万亿棵树
This staggering number surprised the scientific community,
这个惊人的数字震惊了科学界
prompting additional research.
促进了更多的研究
Scientists now cite a more conservative
科学家们现在提出了一个更为保守
but still remarkable figure.
但仍然引人注目的数字
By their revised estimates,
根据他们的修正估计
these restored ecosystems
这些恢复的生态系统
could capture anywhere from 100 to 200 billion tons of carbon,
可以捕获1000到2000亿吨的碳
accounting for over one-sixth of humanity’s carbon emissions.
占人类碳排放量的六分之一以上
More than half of the potential forest canopy for new restoration efforts
仅在六个国家就可以找到一半以上
can be found in just six countries.
可用于新的恢复工作的潜在森林冠层
And the study can also provide insight into existing restoration projects,
这项研究还可以为现有的恢复项目提供想法
like The Bonn Challenge,
比如波恩挑战项目
which aims to restore 350 million hectares of forest by 2030.
它的目标是到2030年恢复3.5亿公顷森林
But this is where it gets complicated.
但从这里就变得复杂起来
Ecosystems are incredibly complex,
生态系统极其复杂
and it’s unclear whether they’re best restored by human intervention.
目前尚不清楚人类的干预能否最好地恢复它们
It’s possible the right thing to do for certain areas
对于某些区域 正确的做法可能就仅仅是
is to simply leave them alone.
不去管它们
Additionally, some researchers worry that
此外 一些研究人员担心
restoring forests on this scale
以这种规模恢复森林
may have unintended consequences,
可能会产生意想不到的后果
like producing natural bio-chemicals
比如以一定的速度生产天然生化物质
at a pace that could actually accelerate climate change.
实际上会加速气候变化
And even if we succeed in restoring these areas,
即使我们成功地恢复了这些区域
future generations would need to protect them
我们的子孙后代也需要保护它们
from the natural and economic forces that previously depleted them.
免受曾经消耗它们的自然和经济力量的影响
Taken together, these challenges have damaged confidence
总的来说 这些挑战损害了
in restoration projects worldwide.
全世界对修复项目的信心
And the complexity of rebuilding ecosystems
重建生态系统的复杂性表明
demonstrates how important it is to protect our existing forests.
保护我们现有的森林是多么重要
But hopefully, restoring some of these depleted regions
但我们希望 恢复这些已经枯竭的区域
will give us the data and conviction necessary
将给我们提供数据和必要的信念
to combat climate change on a larger scale.
以在更大范围内应对气候变化
If we get it right,
如果我们做对了
maybe these modern trees will have time to grow
也许这些现代树木将有时间成长为
into carbon carrying titans.
负载碳的巨人

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍树木如何吸收碳,如何在保护环境,应对气候变化等方面发挥作用。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

羡羡

审核员

审核员DJS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hxE7Af98AI

相关推荐