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地球上100年不下雨会怎么样

What If There Is No Rain On The Earth for 100 Years?

If the sky is suddenly covered with clouds
如果天空中突然乌云密布
and it begins to rain cats and dogs,
然后下起瓢泼大雨
we hurry to get under cover,
我们会赶紧躲起来
even in summer,
即使在夏天
it’s not very pleasant to get soaked to the skin.
身体被淋湿也不是很舒服
And when the bad weather has passed,
雨过天晴之后
it slips our minds
我们忘记了
and we think not about it happening again.
并且我们认为这种情形不会再发生
But what if precipitation,
但是如果雨水
rain, really did disappear from our lives forever?
真的永远从我们生活中消失了呢
Normally, from the sky, trillions of small water droplets
正常情况下 当温度降到冰点以下时
0.5-7mm in size form rain and snow ice crystals
来自天空的数万亿0.5-7毫米大小的小水滴
when the temperature drops below freezing.
会形成雨 雪或者冰晶
But what if these droplets cease to fall?
但如果这些水滴不再落下呢
At first glance, it would seem there’s nothing to worry about.
乍一看 似乎没什么好担心的
But in fact,
但实际上
the absence of rain will lead to global catastrophe.
不下雨会导致全球性的大灾难
If precipitation halts altogether,
如果降水完全停止
one of the central processes occurring in nature will be disrupted.
那么自然界中的一个中心程序将被破坏
That is a continuous water cycle.
那就是水循环
Moisture evaporates from the surface of the seas
水分从海洋表面蒸发
and oceans and migrates up into the atmosphere.
然后转移到大气中
Once there the vapor condenses, collects into clouds
一旦到了大气中 水蒸气凝结成云
and returns to the ground as rain or snow,
以雨或雪的形式降落地面
the total amount of this vital liquid generally remains unchanged.
水这种重要液体的总量一般保持不变
But it’s composition changes radically.
但它的成分发生了根本性的变化
Salt water evaporates from the surface of the seas and oceans
海水从海洋表面蒸发
and from atmosphere it returns fresh and purified from harmful contaminants.
从大气中返回新鲜的 将有害污染物净化掉的淡水
But if the evaporation from the seas and oceans
但如果从海洋蒸发的水分
does not return to the earth as precipitation,
没有以降水的形式返回地球
the cycle will be broken forever.
那么这个循环将被永远打破
The first and most obvious thing that will begin to happen is the disappearance of plants,
会发生的第一件 也是最明显的事 就是植物的消失
many of which serve as food for humans and animals.
其中有许多是人类和动物的食物
First, such heavy water drinkers as silk grass will perish.
首先 像丝草这样需要大量水分的植物将会死亡
Without moisture, they’ll not last a week.
没有水分 它们活不过一周
Drought resistant species for example, the Festuca
以较抗旱的物种来说 如羊茅
will last several times longer.
则会存活几周
But they too, will suffer the same eventual fate
但是 它们也终将灭亡
as the silk grass and
就像丝草
because of the increasing dryness of the soil,
因为土壤越来越干
all plants will be prevented from reproducing.
所有植物都不能繁殖
Luckier, will be vegetables and crops.
蔬菜和庄稼则要好一些
People will have to water them to provide themselves with food.
人们必须给它们浇水来获得食物
For irrigations, salt water from our seas and oceans can be desalted.
为了灌溉 我们可以淡化海水
Conserving fresh water, modern technologies offer
现代科技运用许多低成本的 简单的方法
numerous low cost and simple methods for doing this,
来保护淡水
for example, using distillation or electrodialysis.
例如 使用蒸馏或者电渗析的方法
But water is not endless.
但水不是无穷无尽的
Every year about 577,060 cubic meters evaporates.
每年约有577 060立方米的水蒸发掉
Even if people weren’t to use water at all,
即使人们根本不用水
then without rain, water would disappear
如果不下雨 水大约将会
within roughly 2,500 years and
在2500年内消失
if we were to use water as we obviously would,
如果我们还要用水的话 很明显我们会用
then it would all disappear that much faster and
那么水会消失得更快
as the reservoirs dry up,
当水库干涸
of course, their inhabitants will die.
水库里的生物就会灭亡
When all the plants disappear,
当所有植物都灭亡了
an important food chain is disrupted and
一个重要的食物链会被破坏
the herbivores that we rely on for meat.
包括为我们提供肉类的食草动物
If we add to this the general shortage of water,
如果再加上水资源的普遍匮乏
it’s unlikely that they will survive under such conditions.
它们不可能在这种条件下生存
After then, predators will be the next to fall
然后 食肉动物将会是下一个灭亡的
if they will have no more herbivores to eat and
如果它们没有食草动物可以吃的话
after that, it will become much more difficult for people to provide themselves with food.
在那之后 人们也更难以获得食物
In addition to food problems for humans,
除了人类的食物问题
the absence of plant cover will lead to diabolical changes in the Earth’s atmosphere.
缺少植物的覆盖将导致地球大气层产生恶魔般的变化
During photosynthesis in plants,
在植物光合作用的过程中
oxygen is released an important component of the air we breathe.
释放的氧气是我们呼吸空气中的重要组成部分
If we imagine that photosynthesis ceases to occur,
如果我们假设光合作用停止了
the remaining oxygen will only last for about 2,000 more years.
剩下的氧气只够再维持两千多年
Additionally, tree leaves and tall grasses create a soft moist microclimate,
此外 树叶和高草创造了一个柔软潮湿的小气候
protecting the planet from
使地球远离
withering winds and the scorching rays of the Sun.
干燥的风和灼热的阳光
Without these protectors,
如果没有这些保护者
temperatures will begin to rise alarmingly quickly.
气温将会以惊人的速度上升
According to some estimates,
根据一些估计
temperatures could increase annually by as much as 36℃.
气温可能每年上升36摄氏度
This in turn will accelerate the process of evaporation.
这反过来又会加速蒸发
Under such conditions,
在这种情况下
problems regarding hygiene will become exceedingly acute.
卫生方面的问题将会变得极其严重
The lack of available water could cause the spread of a variety of diseases
缺乏可用的水可能导致多种疾病的传播
and it will be difficult to treat these diseases
而且治疗这些疾病会很困难
as the shortage of water will make the production of medicines nearly impossible
因为缺水将使药品的生产不太可能
And we shouldn’t forget that without water,
我们也不能忘了 没有水的话
the average person can live little longer than 3 days.
人一般活不过3天
The draining of the Earth’s water reservoirs will also lead to difficulties in obtaining
地球上水库的排水也会导致发电的困难
as unexpectedly as it may sound electricity.
这听起来可能出乎意料
Without water, the turbines of hydroelectric plants are doomed
没有水 水力发电厂的涡轮机注定要
to be stilled forever and
永远静止
nuclear power reactors will have nothing to cool them.
并且也没有什么东西来冷却核反应堆
Due to the widespread shortage of electricity,
由于普遍的电力短缺
many factories will cease to function and
许多工厂将停止运作
telephone in satellite communication may well disappear.
卫星通讯中的电话很有可能会消失
In addition, problems with heating will commence and
除此之外 供暖问题将开始出现
the streets of our cities will drown in darkness at night.
并且 在夜晚 我们城市的街道将淹没在黑暗之中
Thus, the disappearance of the rains will soon become fatal for all mankind,
因此 降雨的消失很快会对人类产生致命的影响
turning the planet into a lifeless desert.
会将地球变成一个了无生机的沙漠
Is it possible to solve this problem?
有可能解决这个问题吗
Theoretically, probably, yes.
理论上来说 是的 有可能
Water can be obtained by chemical means
水可以通过化学方法得到
for hygiene, food, agricultural needs and drinking and
来满足卫生 食品 农业和饮用的需求
electricity can be obtained using alternative methods,
电也可以通过其他方法得到
such as, for example, windmills.
比如说 风力发电
Winds on a planet without trees will become quite potent and
在一个没有树木的星球上 风力很强
so this method will be very useful.
所以这个方法很有用
Energy can of course, be produced using solar cells.
当然也可以使用太阳能电池产生能量
But alas, they only work during the daytime.
但是 它们只在白天运转
In contrast, geothermal power stations are able to generate electricity
相比之下 地热发电站能够全天候地
from the heat of underground sources for example, geysers around the clock.
利用地热资源 如间歇泉 进行发电
True, modern technology unfortunately does not allow us to
然而遗憾的是 现代科技不允许我们
penetrate very deeply into the ground.
深入地下
At the moment only 2% of the world’s potential geothermal energy is readily available
目前全球仅有2%的潜在地热资源是现成可用的
or 840 billion watts.
或者说8400亿瓦特
But this would be more than enough to meet the needs of humanity.
但这对人类的需要来说 已经绰绰有余了
However, it’s quite likely that
然而 人类很有可能
mankind won’t have the time to build the factories that create water
没有时间建造生产水的工厂
or to construct the required number of windmills to produce enough electricity.
或建造足够数量的风车来生产足够的电力
In the case of a natural worldwide catastrophe like this,
在这种全球性的灾难中
every second counts and
每一秒都很重要
erecting complex objects during a water shortage
在缺水时建造复杂的物体
would put us in quite a tight spot.
会使我们陷入困境
Certainly the level and quality of life would fall dramatically
当然 生活水平和质量会大幅下降
and the population of the earth would significantly decrease.
地球上的人口会显著减少
But the rest of humanity could try to create artificial ecosystem
而其他人可以通过建造封闭的自给自足的
by building closed self-contained giant domes.
巨大圆顶来尝试创造生态系统
Stocks of water and energy in them should suffice for the needs of plants that support atmosphere
其中水和能源的储备应满足 维持大气的植物的需求
as well as the production of food for humans and animals.
以及为人类和动物生存所需的食物的生产
To save mankind,
为了拯救人类
underground cities may be of assistance.
地下城可能会有所帮助
Under the ground, there’s a fairly comfortable, constant temperature
地下是相当舒适 气温合适的
and no tornados squalls or dust storms.
并且没有龙卷风 暴风或沙尘暴
But if people don’t have time to build capsules or underground sanctuaries,
但如果人们没有时间建造胶囊或地下避难所
they are unlikely to survive for long on
那人们就不太可能在这个星球
the hot dehydrated surface of the planet
热的要脱水的地面长久的活下去
and yet even in this case,
但即使在这种情况下
life in our world will not end.
仍然有生物会活下去
It’s likely that microbes and bacteria
科学家称之为极端微生物的
which scientists call extremophiles will survive,
微生物和细菌将会幸存
these hardy creatures are able to adapt to the unbearable heat
这些顽强的生物能够适应无法忍受的高温
and lack of sunlight and water and
就算缺少阳光和水
some of them can even survive and reproduce
其中一些甚至可以只摄入
while being fed only with a steady diet of carbon dioxide.
稳定的二氧化碳来存活和繁殖
But whether they can evolve into intelligent beings,
但至于它们能否进化成智能生物
it’s impossible to predict.
就很难说了
So what’s the deal with all this dystopian fantasy?
那么 你可能会问 这些反乌托邦幻想
You may ask?
是怎么回事
Well, we haven’t modeled this theroetical situation just for fun.
我们并非仅仅为了好玩而模拟这个理论情境
This is an excellent occasion to raise awareness of
这是一个提高人们在21世纪面临
important global problems we face in the 21st century.
重大全球性问题意识的好机会
We cannot magically violate the water cycle in nature
我们不能像这里臆想的那样神奇地违背
as we’ve surmised here.
自然界的水循环
But deforestation,
但是森林砍伐
increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations,
大气中二氧化碳浓度增加
increasing particulate matter in the atmosphere
大气中颗粒物的增加
as well as the contamination of water bodies
以及水体的污染
are all leading to malfunctions or one day to the destruction of the cycle.
都造成了危害 也许某一天会导致循环的破坏
As a result, irreversible ecological changes are taking place on the planet.
结果就是 地球上随处发生不可逆转的生态变化
An example is the caronian spit located in the kalingingrad region.
位于加里宁格勒地区的库尔斯沙嘴就是个例子
Due to the destruction of the forests,
由于森林的破坏
this once vibrant ecosystem has begun to turn into a desert.
这个曾经生机勃勃的生态系统已经变成了沙漠
At present, the speed of deforestation worldwide can reach an unseeing rate.
目前 世界范围内的森林砍伐速度可以达到一个无法估计的速度
It’s difficult to talk about exact figures
要谈及准确的数字是困难的
as the organizations that keep these records
因为保存这些记录的组织
relying mainly on an official data from relevant ministries and individual countries.
主要依靠有关部门和个别国家的官方数据
According to their estimates,
根据他们的估计
in just the first five years of the 21st century,
在21世纪的头5年
the earth lost six million hectares of forest annually.
地球每年损失600万公顷森林
This is not even considering the fact that
这甚至还没有考虑
for example, in Peru and Bolivia,
比如说 在秘鲁和玻利维亚
about 80% of logging is illegal and in Colombia 42%.
大约80%的木材砍伐是非法的 在哥伦比亚则是42%
There are also large gaps in the data for the Amazon in Brazil.
巴西亚马逊的数据也有很大差异
The only thing that’s clear for certain deforestation around the globe
唯一可以肯定的是 全球范围内的森林砍伐
is happening much faster than official sources report.
比官方报道的要快得多
If we do nothing, there will be trouble.
如果我们什么也不做 就会有麻烦
One future catastrophe awaits us regarding drinking water
在饮用水方面 一场未来的灾难正等着我们
without which we simply cannot survive.
没有饮用水 我们根本不能生存
Annually each inhabitant of the earth uses about
地球上的每个居民每年大约要
750 square meters of fresh water.
耗用约750立方米的淡水
According to scientists by 2050,
根据科学家的预测 到2050年
this figure will be halved,
这个数字将减半
meaning that up to 80% of the countries of the world wull be suffering from a shortage of fresh water.
这意味着 世界上80%的国家将遭受淡水短缺之苦
Forecasts indicate that in Africa alone by 2020,
预测显示 仅在非洲 到2020年
due to climate change
由于气候变化
between 75 and 250 million people
7500万到2亿5千万人
will be experiencing severe water shortages and
将经历严重的水资源短缺
by 2030, almost 5 billion people
到2030年 全球大约50亿人
will be living without satisfactory water treatment,
将过着令人不满意的水处理生活
which will be approximately 67% of the world population.
这将占世界人口的67%
So that our planet does not become a giant wasteland
这样我们的星球就不会成为一个巨大的荒地
and mankind won’t become mired in fierce and
人类也不会陷入激烈的
bloody wars for precious resources.
为争夺宝贵资源而进行的血腥战争
We must first stop this massive deforestation
我们必须首先制止这种大规模的森林砍伐
begin to consume water more judiciously and
开始更加小心谨慎地用水
look towards more innovative eco-friendly technologies
寻找更具创新性的环保技术
that will reduce the harmful emissions that are polluting the atmosphere.
减少污染大气的有害排放
We need to entirely reconsider our role in this ecosystem.
我们需要完全重新思考我们在这个生态系统中的角色
At the moment, we are behaving like parasites.
因为目前 我们就像寄生虫一样
Thanks for watching!
感谢观看
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在下面发表评论
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并且喜欢的话就点个赞吧

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视频概述

讲述了降水的重要性以及缺少降水带来的灾难性影响 还有对应的措施

听录译者

徘徊的小孩

翻译译者

子岚

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUSAP_0ZBiI

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