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如果美国的预算只有100美元 – 会怎么花呢? – 译学馆
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如果美国的预算只有100美元 - 会怎么花呢?

What If The US Budget Was Only $100 - How Would It Spend It?

你有没有想过国家把钱花哪了?
Have you ever wondered where all the money goes that your country spends?
这其实蛮复杂的
It’s a fairly complicated matter.
所以今天 我们只把目光集中在美联邦的预算上
So today we hope to make it a little less complicated
希望能让问题简单些
while focusing solely on the budget of the USA.
每年 联邦政府都有税收
The US government receives money each year,
而开销 称为国家支出
its revenue, while its outgoings are referred to as the national expenditure.
这钱是怎么花的
How that money is spent,
或是怎么挣的 是争论的热点
or how it’s earned is a matter of ongoing debate.
考虑到所有的意图和用途 被花的是你的钱
And it should be, given that for all intents and purposes, it’s your money being spent.
为了简化如何分配预算的问题
To simplify how the budget is apportioned,
今天我们来设想成 只是一个小家庭的预算
today we’ll imagine: it’s just a small household allow.
从本期图片信息秀中
Follow us on the money trail,
跟着我们一起来看看金钱流向
in this episode of the infographics show,
如果美联邦预算只有100美元
if the United States budget was only $100,
该怎么花这个钱?
how would it be spending it?
别忘了点赞和点击铃形按钮
Don’t forget to subscribe and click the bell button,
那样就可以收到我们的通知
so that you can be part of our notification squad.
首先 我们先来看看联邦的这些钱是怎么来的
First of all, let’s take a look at where the money for the US budget comes from?
大部分的收入来自于你们
The revenue comes mostly from you,
包含在你们交的税中
in the taxes you pay.
在2018年 联邦政府总税收将达到3.654万亿美元
In 2018, the US federal government will have a total revenue of $3,654 trillion.
我们将这么一大笔钱简化成100美元
This sizable amount we are going to round down to 100 bucks.
如果我们把100元中的1元等同于360亿
You can get an idea of how much the total budget is
那么你对总预算有多少 就能有个概念
if we say that $1 of our 100 is equal to about $36 billion.
联邦政府的一半收入来自所得税
Half of the US federal revenue will come from income taxes,
接下来有30%来自工资税
and a further 30% from payroll taxes.
工资税由雇主或雇员支付
Payroll tax is the money the employer or employee pays for
用以支付社会保障 如老年医保 健康保险以及失业保险
such things as social security medicare, health insurance and unemployment insurance.
10%的收入来自企业所得税
10% of the total revenue will come from corporate taxes,
4%来自消费税和海关税
and a further 4% from excise taxes and tariffs.
这些是藏在某些商品中特殊的税
This is the special hidden tax on certain items.
有时指罪孽税
Sometimes referred to as a sin tax,
因为那些我们应该减少消费的商品
because it includes things we should probably consume less of
比如烟酒和汽油
such as alcohol cigarettes and gasoline.
剩下的税收包括美联储系统的收入
The rest of the revenue will consist of money earned by the Federal Reserve,
比遗产税稍微少一些
and slightly less than that amount from estate taxes.
遗产税是一个人去世后
And the estate taxes money the government takes
政府在留给另一人的现金财产或证券中收取的钱
when a person dies and leaves cash property or stock to another person.
这占国家税收的1%或是更少
This usually makes up 1% or less of the US revenue.
现在我们知道了钱是哪来的
Now that we know where the money comes from.
让我们看看它够不够维持美国的超大开销
Let’s see if it’s enough to provide for the very large household of the USA.
美国的税收全球排名第一
The money the US receives from taxes is the globe’s largest revenue,
但也是花钱如流水
but the US is a big spender.
入不敷出 年年赤字
The country will outlay more than it receives
美国是众多这样的国家之一
making the USA one of many countries with a yearly deficit.
其他有些国家看上去银行余额充足
Many other countries have a healthy-looking bank balance
比如石油大亨卡塔尔 理性消费国挪威
such as oil-rich Qatar or the sensibly spending nation of Norway.
就像我们现在看到的
As we will now see,
美国把大笔的钱花在了其他国家看起来较少关注的地方上
the USA puts a lot of its cash into areas other countries seem to care much less about.
其中之一就是军事
One of those areas is the military.
如果你看了军事基地那一集 你就知道了
As you will know if you’ve watched our military base episode;
那么 闲话少说
and so without further ado,
现在让我们看看现金统计
we’ll now take a look at some hard cash statistics.
政府的支出有三种类型
There are three types of government spending.
民众的津贴补贴是强制性支出
Mandatory spending is the money that goes towards entitlements for the US people,
比如社会保障 健康保障 以及失业补助
safeguard such as social security, health care and unemployment compensation.
这削减了这100美元最大的部分
This amount makes the biggest dent in our $100 allowance.
强制性支出占整体预算的62%
Mandatory spending is 62% of the entire budget,
也就是说100美元预算中的62元
or $62 from our 100 buck budget.
社会保障花了27美元
Social Security will cost about $27,
老年医保大概15元 医疗补助大概11元
medicare about $15 and medicaid about $11.
其他强制性支出
Other mandatory programs,
包含食品券
which could include things such as food stamps,
及许多其他的福利项目
or many other welfare programs
瓜分了剩下的强制性支出
will take up the rest of the mandatory budget.
在这里 我们应该注意
We should note here that there are fears
钱花的可能比挣得快
that mandatory spending will outpace the money earned
很简单 因为有太多的人要去照顾
as there will simply be too many people to take care of,
而劳动力却不足
and not enough labor force.
这就是在霓虹国发生的事
This is what happened in Japan.
国家有大量的老龄人口
A country with a lot of old people,
以及 很多年轻人决定不要孩子
and many young people choosing not to have children.
考虑到其他 是自动化技术带来的大规模失业的威胁
Something else to think about is the specter of massive job loss due to technological automation.
至于剩下的38元
As for the $38 we have left,
大部分去向是可随意支配的弹性支出
most of that goes to what’s called discretionary spending.
这部分的税收年年相异
This is part of the revenue that could change year by year,
取决于国会的投票
depending on what Congress votes for.
第三类支出是国债的利息
The third outlay is the money the US has to pay in interest for its national debt
如果我们依旧按100元算的话
which has almost reached $550,
国债总值已经达到了550美元
if we are still rounding down to our $100 budget.
而这部分的利息一直在涨
This interest keeps increasing
在2018年 它会占到我们100美元税收的9%
and in 2018 it will be about 9% of our $100 total revenue.
这额外的9美元 国家也必须不停地掏钱
This is another $9 from our budget that the US must keep paying
以尽量减少债务拖欠
less the default on the debt.
迄今 美国的国债高居世界榜首
This national debt is by far the biggest in the world.
在强制性和债务利息支出之后
After mandatory spending and interest debt is paid,
还剩下29美元可供国家平稳运行
we have about $29 left to keep the USA running smoothly.
那么剩下的钱去哪里了
Where does the rest of the money go?
根据白宫的发布 在2018年
According to the White House, in 2018,
100元中的19元都要花在军事上
about 19 of our $100 will be spent on the American military.
这也是迄今总弹性预算中最大的一块
This is by far the biggest chunk of the total discretionary budget.
在政府支付国债利息之前
It’s more or less half of the 38 bucks that government has left before
剩下的38元中 多少要占掉一半
it has to pay the interest on its debt.
这意味着在29元中
This means from our 29 bucks,
只剩下了10元以供他用
we have just $10 left over for everything else;
而且这个“他用”也要花不少钱
and there’s a lot to pay for.
剩下的钱也是各奔东西
The rest goes to other departments of which there are many.
大概有0.5元流向了农业部
About $0.5 goes to the Department of Agriculture,
有0.44元去往交通部
$0.44 goes to the Department of Transportation,
2元拨给教育部
$2 goes to the Department of Education,
0.26元划给劳工部
$0.26 goes to the Department of Labor,
1.2元划归给国土安全部
$1.2 goes to the Department of Homeland Security,
0.32元给了国家内政部
$0.32 goes to the Department of the Interior,
0.77元用于国务院以及其他国际项目
$0.77 goes to the Department of State and other International Programs,
1.11元拨给住房和城市规划部
$1.11 goes to the Department of Housing and Urban Development,
0.21元给商务部
$0.21 goes to the Department of Commerce.
0.76元给司法部
$0.76 goes to the Department of Justice,
0.32元去往财政部
$0.32 goes to the Department of the Treasury,
2元拨给退伍军人管理局
$2 goes to the Department of Veterans Affairs,
以及0.81元拨给能源部
and $0.81 goes to the Department of Energy.
还有发给各级政府机构的“边角料”
There will also be smaller amount spent on multiple government agencies
还有要花钱的地方呢
and there’s more still to pay.
弹性预算的一大块剩余
Quite a lot of the remaining money from the discretionary budget
都给了应急基金 以防战争或自然灾害
goes into the emergency fund in case of war or natural disaster
以及当前的海外军事行动
as well as current military overseas operations.
这涵盖了各级行政部门组织机构
This involves multiple agencies,departments and organizations,
大概要花掉2.3元
and amounts to around $2.30.
如果你算一下总和
If you add up the entire budget,
已经超过了全部收入——美国现在就是这样
it is more than the entire revenues which is just the way it works out each year in the USA.
为了节衣缩食 川普这一届已经小小改动了一些
To save a few pennies, the Trumpet administration has made a few minor changes
比如从这100元中抠出来0.03元
such as taking out about $0.03 of our $100
那些钱原来是给文艺机构的
that was previously allocated to arts and cultural agencies.
同时 川普也颇受争议地削减了NASA预算的0.01元
At the same time, Trump has also controversially decreased NASA’s budget by about $0.01.
如果你看了我们那期《NASA VS SpaceX》
If you watched our episode NASA VS SpaceX,
你就知道川普立志要把人类再次送上月球
you’ll know Trump aspires to send men back to the moon,
之后再送上火星
or later even Mars.
而NASA在2018的预算刚刚超过0.5元
NASA was budgeted just over $0.5 for 2018.
2018年的预算赤字达到4400亿
The budget deficit for 2018 amounts to $440 billion.
这大约是最初的100元收入的12%
This is around 12% of our original 100 buck revenue.
也就是说大概有12元的亏空
It means that there is around a $12 deficit.
所以我们总共花了112美元
So we’ve spent the grand total of $112.
现在我们必须扪心自问一下 美国能摆脱债务吗?
The question we must now ask ourselves is will the US get out of debt,
还是欠债会像雪球一样越滚越大?
or will the debt keep growing?
好吧 和很多其他国家一样
Well, like many other countries,
美国可以自己印钞票
the US can just print its own money.
所以当欠了债 光印钞票行吗
So when in debt, just keep printing, right?
有人认为这不是个好主意
Some people think this is not a good idea,
因为这会导致金融危机
as it could lead to a financial crisis,
当然 这也会使那些快要还清债的人们反感
and of course, it might upset the people whose taxes are going towards paying off the debt.
一个简单的解决方案是 削减政府开支 或是提高税收
A simple solution to the debt would seem to be to cut government spending or raise taxes.
但带来的风险是限制了经济增长
but the risk is that this might hamper economic growth.
另一个办法是刺激经济增长
Another solution is to boost economic growth,
让它涨得比欠债来得快
so it grows faster than the debt.
那么这100元 美国用在哪里
In terms of the $100, how can the US use it in areas
才能得到更高的回报?
where it will see higher returns?
例如 一些分析师认为
For example, some analysts believe
美国应该减少防务的花费 增加公共基础建设
the US should spend less on defense and more in public infrastructure.
你认为美国该如何分配这些钱才能使民众受益最大?
Where do you think the US should be allocating its money for the best of the American people?
或是你会怎么处理这些预算?
Or what would you do with the budget?
让我们看看评论区吧
Let us know in the comments.
一定要看我们另一个视频 《机器人VS 人类》
Be sure to check out our other video Robots VS. Humans.
感谢观看 还有别忘了点赞转发
Thanks for watching, and as always, don’t forget to like, share and subscribe.
下期再见
See you next time.

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视频概述

这回真是要好好算账了

听录译者

茄也

翻译译者

HOUKI

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65Vpyy43Fug

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